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November 5, 2011

Nutrition Study Guide Chapter 7 (Vitamins) and Chapter 8 (Minerals)

QuestionAnswer
What are vitamins? Noncaloric essential nutrients necessary for many metobolic tasks
List fat soluble vitamins in both their letter name and chemical name. Vitamin A (Retinol) Vitamin D (Cholecaliferol) Vitamin E (tocopherol) Vintamin K (Phylloquinone)
List the water soluble vitamins in both letter name and chemical name. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Folate Biotin Choline Pantothenic Acid
List general functions of vitamins Acts as coenzymes or catalyst in chemical reactions; Acts as anitoxidants to protect cell structure; Assist as tissue or bone building components; work to prevent dificency disease; if lacking in diet a "specific" function can not be performed
define enriched foods Nutrients "added" to restore nutrients loss in processing
Define fortified foods Nutrients "added" to improve original state of food product
Deficency of what vitamin results in night blindness Vitamin A (retinol)
T or F? Fish liver oils or fatty fish are an excellent natural food source for Vitamin D? True
The primary function of Vitamin D is to regulate the absorption anf metabolism of the minerals ___________ and ___________ Calcium and Phosphorus
Define Rickets. Who is at risk? Identify food sources important in diet for prevention Young Children; Malformation of bones (looks liked bowed legs) Drink Milk
Define Osteoporosis. Who is at risk for developing it? Loss of bone density that leads to brittle bones and spontaneous fractures; Elderly Adults
T or F? Foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are milk and margarine? True
The chemical name for vitamin E is? Tocopheral
Vitamin E is considered an ____________ because it protects cell membranes Antioxidant
That trace mineral works as a "partner" with Vitamin E in its role as an antioxidant? Selenium
T or F? A rich food source of Vitamin E is sunflower oil? False Sunflower seed and Vegetable oil
The fat soluble vitamin that is responsible for synthesis of blood clotting factors is? (newborns recieve this vitamin shortly after birth) Phylloquinone Vitamin K
T or F? Freen leafy vegatables such as spinach are good food source of Vitamin K and Folate? True
Signs of Vitamin C deficency are characterized bt? Brusing, delay wound healing
Scurvy is associated with what vitamin deficiency? Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Identify food soources high in Vitamin C Citrus fruits, tomatoes, kiwi, berries
An alcoholic is likely to be deficent in what vitamin? Vitamin B-Thiamin
The three body systems that can be affected by a thiamin deficiency are Gi system, Central Nervous, Cardiovascular
That vitamin is destroyed by light? How is this vitamin protected in foods? Vitamin b2 (Riboflavin); not be put in clear (see through) containers
The best food source of Riboflavin or Vitamin B2 are Milk and meat
What food is major source of miacin Meat (beef)
A folic acid deficiency induces a specific form of amemia called Megoloblastic- it is a birth defect (spina bifida)
Another name for folic acid is? Folate
The best food source of folic acid is? liver chicken beef green leafy veggies broccoli orange juice egg yolks vereal yeast legumes
Food sources high in vitamin C are citrus friuts tomatoes kiwi and berries
Phytochemicals are NOT ___________ and ___________. They are the chemical compounds produced by plants and act as ___________ and ________ Vitamin and Minerals; Antioxidants and Hormones
Megadosing Taking too many vitamins and thinking it is "good" for you...Using them as drugs
Vitamin Supplementation A pill that gives you your vitamins
What are B complex vitamins? Water soluble vitamins
the most effective and econimocal way for healthy people to ensure adequate and balanced vitamins intake is to.... Eat a varied diet
Why is it important for pregnant women to consume foods rich in folate? Necessary for cellular division and protein synthesis
What is a mineral? Perform a vereity of metobolic tasks, inorgantic widely distributed in nature
Name the 2 main groups of minerals Major Minerals and Trace Minerals
What are the general functions of minerals in the body? Building tissue and activating, regulating,transmitting, and controlling metabolic process
List the MAJOR minerals and identify their chemical symbol Calcium (CA) Phosphorus (P)Sodium (S) Potassium (K) Magnisium (Mg)Chloride (Cl) Sulfur (S)
Bioavailability What is avalible to the body based on need
Calcium has 4 functions in the body Bone tooth formation, blood clotting, muscle and nerve action, metobolic function such as absorbtion of vitamin B12
Deficiency of calcuim can lead to what disorders? Rickets, Tetany, and Osteoporosis
T or F? Yogurt is a good source of calcuim? True
Identify food sources rich in calcium Milk calcium fortified foods, low oxalate greens
What are the basic functions of phosphorus in the body Bone tooth formation, Energy metabolism: cell formation, Helps maintain pH homeostasis of fluids
What 2 minerals are important in bone formation? Calcium and Phosporus
What MINERAL is present in the body in the greatest concentration? Where is it found? Sodium; outside the cells
water balance is the main function of this mineral (water guards water "outside" cells) Sodium
Most of the body's sodium is found in water outside or inside cells? outside
High potassium intake tends to lower blood cholesteror or lower blood pressure? Explain Blood Pressure; when sodium and potassium are consumed together it equals levels of hypotention out
What foods are rich in potassium? Natural foods: Oranges bananas broccoli green leafy veggies
Most dietary sodium comes from what source? Table salt
The major mineral in water INSIDE of cells is Potassium
Deficiency of this trace element causes anemia. Who is most at risk for developing it? Iron (Fe); Women and Children
Food sources rich in Fe are? Meat eggs veggies cereal (liver)
The trace element the body needs to form hemoglobin in the body is? Iron (Fe)
Hemoglobin Carries oxygen to the cells
The main dietary source of iodine is Table salt (seafood)
What is the function of iodine in the body To control basal metobolic rate
What are the functions of zinc wound healing and tissue healing
What population of individuals may need mineral supplementation Pregnant women
Created by: bjbert