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Anatomy Chapter 6-8

Functions of skeleton Provides framework, protects internal organs, contains and protects red bone marrow, storage site for excess calcium
Osteocytes Bone cells
Matrix is made of calcium salts and collagen
Matrix is not living
canliculi are "little canals"
compact bone looks solid, but very precisely structured
Compact bone is made of osteons or haversian systems
Spongy bone looks like sponge, contains red bone marrow
Red bone marrow produces red blood cells, platelets and the five kinds of white blood cells
Long bones bone of arms, legs,hands (not wrists) and feet (not ankles)
Long bone shaft is called diaphysis
Ends of bone are called epiphyses
Diaphyses are made of compact bone
Epiphyses are made of spongy bone
Short bones wrists and ankles
flat bones ribs, shoulder blades, hips, cranial
Irregular bones vertebrae and facial bones
Which type of bone is NOT spongy bone covered in a thin layer of compact bone? Long bones
Periosteum fibrous connective that merges with tendons
Osteoblasts are cells that produce bone
Fontanels The soft spot on a baby's head where bone has not completely ossified
Bone growth occurs in epiphyseal discs
Osteoclasts Bone destroying cells
Resorption The act of osteoclasts breaking down a small part of bone to gain minerals
Factors that affect the height of a person Heredity, nutrition, hormones and chemical communication from other tissues, excercize/"stress"
Osteoblasts produce osteocalcin
Osteocalcin decreases... fat storage by adipose tissue
Osteocalcin increases insulin production by the pancreases
Axial skeleton The skeleton which forms the axis of the body
Appendicular skeleton The skeleton made out of limbs
Skull made of eight cranial bones and fourteen facial bones
Cranial bones form the braincase
Frontal bone forms the forehead
Parietal bones form the posterior to pand much of the side walls of teh skkull
Temporal bone forms the side of the skull
Occipital bone form the lower, posterior part of the braincase
Sphenoid bone is visible on the side of the skull between teh frontal and temporal bones
Sella turcica encloses the pituitary gland
The ethmoid bone anchors the pituitary gland
immovable joints are called sutures
Nasal cavities are lined with ciliated epithelium
mastoid sinuses sinuses in the mastoid process of each temporal bone
rib cage made of 12 ribs
3 parts of the sternum upper manubrium, central body, and the lower xiphoid process
First 7 pairs of ribs are called true ribs
Middle 3 pairs of ribs are called false ribs
Last 2 pairs of ribs are called floating ribs
Scapula a large, flat bone with several projections that anchor muscles that move the upper arm and forearm
Humerus Long bone in upper arm
Radius and ulna bones in the forearm
Carpals eight small bones in the wrist
Metacarpals the five bones of the palm of the hand
Phalanges Bones of the fingers
Ilium flared, upper portion of the hip that form the sacroiliac joint
Ischium the lower posterior part of the hip that we sit on
Pubis The lower most anterior part of the hip
The two pubic bones articulate with one another at the pubic symphysis
acetabulum is the socket in the hip bone
Patella kneecap
tibia weight-bearing bone of the lower leg
Fibula The small bone in the leg which the muscles attach to.
Tarsals The seven bones in the ankle
Caclaneus Heel bone
Metatarsals The give long bones of each foot
Phalanges Bones of the toes
Joint Where two bones meet or articulate
Synarthrosis joint Immovable
Diarthrosis Freely movable joint
Diarthrosis are ________ joints synovial joints
Synovial membrans secretes synovial fluid
Synovial joints have bursae
Bursae Small sacs of synovial fluid between the joint and the tendons that cross over the joint.
Myocytes Individual muscle cells
Tendons Anchor muscles to bones
Aponeurosis A flat tendon
Periosteum The fibrous connective tissue that covers bones
Origin (of muscle) The stationary attachment of the muscle
Insertion (of muscle) The more moveable attachment of the muscle
Antagonists muscles muscles that have opposite functions
Muscle cannot push
Synergistic muscles Muscle with the same function, or those that work together to perform a particular function
Prime mover (muscle) The muscle that does most of the work of flexing
Muscles need the energy of ______ to contract ATP
Isotonic exercise is exercise where the muscle contract and bring about movement
Concentric contract i the shortening of a muscle as it exert force
An eccentric contraction is the lengthening of a muscle as it still exerts force
Must sense is the brain's ability to know where our muscle are and what they are doing, without our having to look at them and be aware of them.
Creatine phosphate is an energy-transferring molecule
Creatinine A nitrogenous waste product that is excreted by the kidneys
Axon terminal is the the enlarged tip of the motor neuron
Sarcolema The membrane of the muscle fiber
Synapse The small space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma
Sarcomeres Individual contracting units of muscles
Myosin Thick filaments in the center of the sacromere
Toponin and tropomyosin prevent the sliding of the acting and myosin when the muscle fiber is relaxed
superior most area of the sternum manubrium
Which bone joins the os coxxi on the posterior side? sacrum
what joins the os coxxi on the anterior side? the pubic symphsis
Which bone holds the upper teeth? maxilla
What do you call the joint between the mandible and the temporal bone? tempromandibular joint (TMJ)
What is the area of bone just superior to the bridge of the nose glabella
The function of the nervous system are to detect changes and feel sensation, initiate appropriate responses to changes, to organize information for immediate use and store it for future use
The two divisions of nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Nerve cells are called neurons or nerve fibers
Dendrites are processes that transmit impulses toward the cell body
The one axon of a neuron transmits impulses away from the cell body
Dendrites are wrapped in Schwann cells
The layers enclosing the neuron processes are called the myelin sheath
Which of the four quads is a deep muscle? vastus intermedius
Nodes of Ranvier are the parts of the neuron cell membrane that .... depolarize when an electrical impulse is transmitted
Neurolemma the nuclei and cytoplasm of Schwann cells
Neuroglia Specialized cells found only in the brain and spinal cord
The myelin sheaths are formed by Oligodendrocytes
Microglia clean up cellular debris and damaged cells, and phagocytize pathogens
What is the muscle that attaches to the sternum, clavicle and the mastoid process? the sternocleidomastoid
Astrocytes provides a framework for the migrating neurons that will form the brain
Blood-brain barrier Prevents potentially harmful waster products in the blood from diffusing out in to brain tissue
What transmits impulses across a synapse? neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter
Cholinesterase is the inactivator of acetylcholine
Achilles's tendon is also known as calcaneal tendon
There are three type of neurons: sensory neurons, motor neurons and interneurons
The hamstrings are called semimembranosis, semitendonosis, and the biceps femoris
Sensory neurons carry impulses from ________ to the ____________ receptors, central nervous system
Motor neurons carry impulses from the _______ to ________ central nervous system, effectors
Sensory and motor neurons make up the peripheral nervous system
Interneurons are found entirely within the _________. They carry sensory and motor neurons, or _________ both central nervous system, integrate
A nerve is a group of _______ or ______ of many neurons axons or dendrites
Sensory nerves are made only of _______ _______ sensory neurons
Motor nerves are made only of _______ _______ motor neurons
Mixed nerves contains both _______ and ______ neurons sensory and motor
Pronation turning something down
supination turning something up
Dorsiflexion pulling toes up
plantarflexion pointing toes down
Saltatory conduction The presence of an insulating myelin sheath increases the velocity of the impulses, since only the nodes of Ranvier depolarize
Ascending tracts carry sensory impulses to the brain
Descending tracts carry motor impulses away from the brain
There are ________ pairs of spinal nerves 31
There are ______ cervical pairs of nerves 8
There are ________ thoracic pairs of nerves 12
There are _____ lumbar pairs of nerves 5
There are _____ sacral pairs of nerves 5
There is ______ coccygeal pair of nerves 1
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve is made of sensory neurons
The dorsal root ganglion is an enlarged part of the dorsal root that contain teh cell bodies of teh snesory neurons
Origin for trapezius muscle occipital bone
Ganglion means a group of cell bodies outside the CNS
The ventral root of a spinal nerve is the motor root
A reflex is an involuntary response to a stimulus, that is, an automatic action stimulated by a specific change of some kind
Spinal cord reflexes are those that do not depend directly on the brain
Receptors detect a change (the stimulus) and generate impulses
Sensory neurons Transmt ipulses from receptros to the CNS
Central nervous system Contains one or more synapses (interneurons may be part of the pathway).
Motor neurons Transmit impulses from the CNS to the effector
Effector Performs its characteristic action
Stretch reflex A muscle that is stretched will automatically contract
The major parts of the brain are the medulla, pons, and midbrain (collectively called the brainstem), the cerebellum, the hypothalamus, the thalamus and the cerebrum
Ventricles four cavities within the brain
Medulla contains the cardiac centers that regulate heart rate, vasomotor centers that regulate the diameter of blood vessels and, thereby, blood pressure, and respiratory centers that regulate breathing
The second origin of the trapezius is all of the thoracic vertebrae
The pons includes two respiratory centers that work with those in the medulla to produce a normal breathing rhythm
The insertion of the trapezius is the spine of the scapula and the clavicle
The origin of the triceps is the humerus and the scapula
The insertion of the triceps is the ulna
The midbrain encloses the cerebral aqueduct
The origin of the gastrocnemius is the femur
The insertion of the gastrocnemius calcaneus
Action of gastrocnemius plantarflexion
The origin of the tibialis anterior tibia
The insertion of the tibialis anterior Metatarsals
The origin of the hamstrings is the ischium
The insertion of the hamstrings is tibia and fibula
The action of the hamstrings is flexion of the lower leg
the midbrain integrates different reflexes including visual and auditory
Cerebellum controls coordination, regulation of muscle tone, the appropriate trajectory and endpoint of movements and the maintenance of posture and equilibrium
Name the first thing the hypothalamus controls the production of antidiuretic hormone
Name the second thing the hypothalamus controls Production of releasing hormones (also called releasing factors) that stimulate the secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary gland
Action of trapezius Adducts shoulders (moves towards midline), raises and lowers shoulders
Name the third thing the hypothalamus controls Regulation of body temperature
Name the fourth thing the hypothalamus controls Regulation of food intake
Name the fifth thing the hypothalamus controls Integration of the function of the autonomic nervous system
Name the sixth thing the hypothalamus controls Stimulation of visceral responses during emotional situations
Name the seventh thing the hypothalamus controls Regulation of body rhythms
Thalamus controls most of the things concerned with sensation, but it also controls alertness and awakeness
Cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain
The cerebrum consists of two hemispheres separated by the longitudinal fissure
At the base of the longitudinal fissue is the corpus callosum
The corpus callosum is a band of 200 million neurons that connects the right and left hemispheres
The surface of the cerebrum is gray matter called the cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is _______ extensively folded
The folds in the cerebral cortex are called convolutions or gyri
The grooves between the folds in the cerebral cortex are called fissures or sulci
Within the frontal lobes are the motor areas
Anterior to the motor areas in the frontal lobes are the premotor areas
The premotor areas are concerned with learned motor skills that require a sequence of movements
The part of the frontal lobes behind the eyes are called the prefrontal or orbitofrontal cortex
The orbitofrontal cortex is concerned with social and emotional feelings
Broca's motor speech controls the movements of the mouth involved in speaking
The general sensory areas of the parietal lobes receive impulses from receptors in the skin and feel and interpret the cutaneous sensations
The taste areas of the parietal and temporal lobes receive impulses from taste buds on the tongue and elsewhere in the oral cavity
The olfactory areas in the temporal lobes receive impulses from receptors in the nasal cavities for the sense of smell
a sarcomere is capped off by z discs/z lines
The auditory areas in the temporal lobes receive impulses from receptors in the inner ear for hearing
What is the first step for muscle contraction A nerve impulses arrives at the axon terminal, acetylcholine is released and diffuses across the synapse to the sarcolemma
What is the second step for muscle contraction Acetylocholine bonds to acetylcholine receptors and makes the sarcolemma more permeable to Na+ ions, which rush into teh cells
What is the third step for muscle contraction The sarcolemma depolarizes, becoming negative outside and positice inside. The T tubules bring the reversal of charges to the interior of the muscle cells
What is the fourth step for muscle contraction Depolarization stimulates the release of Ca 2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Calcium ions bond to the troponin-tropomyosin complex, which sifts it away from the actin filaments
What is the fifth step for muscle contraction Myosin splits ATP to release its energy
What is the sixth step for muscle contraction All of the sarcomeres in a muscle fiber sorten--the entire muscle fiber contracts.
What is the seventh step for muscle contraction The sarcolemma repolarizes: K+ ions leave the cell, restoring a positive charge outside and a negative charge inside.
What is the eighth step for muscle contraction Cholinesterase in the sarcolemma inactivates acetylcholine
What is the ninth step for muscle contraction Subsequent nerve impulses will prolong contraction
What is the tenth step for muscle contraction When there are no further impulses, the muscle fiber will relax and return to its original length
The occipital lobes arein charge of seeing
Hippocampus is in charge of personality/memories
basal ganglia coordinate accessory movements
The meninges cover the brain and the spinal cord
Name the 3 layers of the meninges Dura mater, arachnoid membrane and pia mater
What is the thick, outermost layer of the meninges Dura mater
What is the middle layer of the meninges made of web-like strands of connective tissue arachnoid membrane
What is the thin innermost membrane of the meninges pia mater
ANS stands for autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system
Visceral motor neurons make up the autonomic nervous system
Adduction of the leg is caused by adductor longus, gracilis
What muscle causes plantar flexion gastrocnemius
What muscle would cause extension of the arm tricep
What muscle would cause elevation of the arms deltoid
If you're doing a pushup, this is one of the major muscle involved pectoralis major
What muscle is responsible for the flexion of the lower leg biceps formalis, semimembranosis, semitendonosis
Name a muscle that would cause extension of the lower leg vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus femoralis, rectus femoralis
This muscle could aid in flexion of the hip internal obliques, abdominal muscles,
Which muscles could potentially turn the head platysma, sternocleidomastoid
The sympathetic division of the ANS brings about rapid and widespread responses in many organs (stress situations)
The parasympathetic division of the ANS brings about very localized responses in one organ (relaxed situations)
Cranial nerve #1 Olfactory
Cranial nerve #2 Optic
Cranial nerve #3 Ocular motor
Cranial nerve #4 Trochlear
Cranial nerve #5 Trigeminal
Cranial nerve #6 Abducens
Cranial nerve #7 Facial
Cranial nerve #8 acoustic
Cranial nerve #9 Glossopharyngeal
Cranial nerve #10 vagus
Cranial nerve #11 accessory
Cranial nerve #12 hypoglossal
Somatic sensory receives sensory information from skin, fascia, joints, skeletal muscles, special senses
visceral sensory receives sensory information from organs
somatic motor "voluntary" nervous system
autonomic motor "involuntary" nervous system
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of cranial nerves and spinal nerves
The PNS includes teh autonomic nervous system (ANS)
The five essential parts of a reflex are receptors, sensory neurons, central nervous system, motor neurons and effector
Flexor reflex A reflex where you pull away from a potentially harmful or painful stimulus
State the locations of cerebrospinal fluid central canal of spine, subarachnoid spaces, ventricles of brain
What is cerebrospinal fluid made of? Blood plasma
What are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid? To exchange nutrients and waste with blood and to act as a shock absorber
What is the function of the glossopharyngeal cranial nerve? Sense of taste and cardiac functions
What is the function of the olfactory cranial nerve? sense of smell
What is the function of the trigeminal cranial nerve? Sensation in face, scalp, and teeth, contraction of chewing muscles
What is the function of the facial cranial nerve? sense of taste, contraction of facial muscles, secretion of saliva
What is the function of the vagus cranial nerve? Sensory in cardiac, respiratory and blood pressure reflexes; contraction of pharynx; secretion of saliva
Created by: akikoandpoog