Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Ch. 6 psyc cont

Operant conditioning

Thorndike's Law of Effect The consequences, or effect, of a response will determine whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthen or weakened; Trial-and-error learning; Responses with unpleasant consequences will be avoided; Puzzle box
Trial-and-error learning Responses closely followed by "satisfying consequences" are most likely to be repeated
Puzzle Box A cat had to press a pedal or pull a loop in order to escape the box and receive food; The cat learned how to open the door almost immediately after so many trials
Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner) A type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to: increase or decrease the frequency of a response, Shape an entirely new response
Reinforcer Anything that: 1. Follows a response and strengthens it 2. Increases the probability that is will occur ex. Paying bills on time to avoid steep late fees
Positive reinforcement Any desirable of pleasant consequence that: 1. Follows a response 2. Increases the probability that the response will be repeated Roughly the same as a reward; When you smile at people and they smile back you want to smile at everyone
negative reinforcement termination of an unpleasant condition after a response; increases the probability that the response will be repeated; ex. turning on air conditioning to avoid the heat; heroin addicts will do anything to get another fix to avoid the pains of withdrawals
Negative reinforcement and studying studying in advance, with a group of people, and studying more relieves test anxiety. therefore test anxiety is a negative reinforcer
Primary reinforcer fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning ex. food, water, sleep
Secondary reinforcer Acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers ex. money, praise, applause
Shaping consists of gradually modeling a desired behavior (response) by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response; responses are gradually guided toward the ultimate goal
Successive approximations A series of gradual steps, each of which is more similar to the final desired response; ex. parents praising a child each time they show improvement, circus animals learn tricks
Extinction Weakening or disappearance of a conditioned response due to withholding reinforcers
Generalization The tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced; ex. a pigeon trained to peck a yellow disk will peck similarly colored disks, the less similar in color the lower the rate of pecking
Discriminative stimulus A stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished; Children misbehave with grandparents be cause parents are not present
Schedules of reinforcement A systematic process for administering reinforcement
Fixed ratio Reinforcement given after a fixed number of responses; an effective way to maintain a high response rate; The faster the response the more reinforcers they receive; paid by how much you do
When large ratios are used: people and animals will pause after each reinforcement, then continue with a high rate of responding
Variable ratio Reinforcement given after a varying number of correct responses; reinforcement can occur anywhere within the given ratio; the reinforcement could occur anywhere in 30 responses but you dont know which response the reinforcer will follow; ex. gambling
Fixed interval schedule Reinforcement given following a correct response after a specific time interval has passed; workers paid by salary (same amount regardless of hours worked); responding will decline after reinforcement and increase right before reinforcement
Variable-interval schedule reinforcement given after the first correct response that follows a varying amount of time; based on average time; maintains a steady and uniform rate of response but lower than ratio schedules; random drug testing
Partial reinforcement effect The greater resistance to extinction that occurs when a portion, rather than all, of the correct responses are reinforced; if parents never give into whining it will stop but if they give in every now and then it will continue
Reward seeking Rewards are among the most important influences that shape behavior; overuse of tangible rewards may undermine people's intrinsic motivation to regulate their own behavior
Factors influencing operant conditioning 1. The magnitude of reinforcement 2. The immediacy of reinforcement 3. The level of motivation of the learner
The magnitude of the reinforcement As magnitude increases, acquisition of a response is faster, rate of responding is higher, and resistance to extinction is greater
The immediacy of reinforcement Responses are conditioned more effectively when reinforcement is immediate; A little delay obscures the relationship between the behavior and the reinforcer
The level of motivation of the learner When food is a reinforcer, a hungry animal learns faster than a full one; If you are motivated to learn tennis you will practice more
Punishment The removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus lowers the probability of the response
Positive punishment Behavior decreases from an added consequence; students stop staying up late after sleeping through an important exam
Negative punishment Behavior decreases from the removal of a consequence, usually a desirable one; a driver speeds less often after having his license suspended for 6 months
Disadvantages of punishment -Punishment does not extinguish undesirable behavior -Punishment indicates that a behavior is unacceptable but does not help develop more appropriate behavior -turns the punished hostile toward the punisher -leads to aggression
Punishment does not extinguish an undesirable behavior Suppresses the behavior when punishing agent is present; The action will continue with the threat of punishment is removed or in settings where punishment is not likely; ex. repeat criminal offenders
Punishment does not develop more appropriate behavior Punishment should be used in conjunction with reinforcement or reward for appropriate behavior; punish a kid for hitting with a time out but reward him later for playing nicely
The punished becomes fearful, hostile, or feels angry toward punisher May be accompanied by a desire to retaliate, avoid, or escape the punisher or the punishing situation ex. running away from home; loss of privilege is more effective than physical punishment and causes less fear and hostility
Punishment leads to aggression May model aggressive behavior; demonstrates aggression as a means for solving problems and discharging anger; children with abusive or punishing parents are at a greater risk of becoming aggressive than other children
making punishment more effective -most effective when applied right after the misbehavior -punishment should be of minimal severity -must be applied consistently
Punishment is most effective when applied right after misbehavior interrupting misbehavior diminishes its rewarding aspects; the longer the delay of punishment the less effective it is (dont kick a dog today for what it did yesterday) it wont connect the punishment with the misdeed
Punishment should be of minimal severity severe punishments leads to adverse side effects; purpose of punishment is not to vent anger but to prevent the action, angry punishment wont produce desired outcome mild punishment wont either; the punishment must be worse than the behavior is rewarding
Punishment must be applied consistently parents cannot ignore behavior one day and punish it the next; both parents should react the same way; the behavior will be suppressed when the probability of punishment is high; people wont speed when being followed by a police car
Learned helplessness A passive resignation to aversive conditions learned through repeated exposure to inescapable and unavoidable aversive events; Overmeier and Seligman Experiment
Overmeier and Seligman Experiment Dogs in harness received electric shock, later the dogs that received shock and control group were put in a box; when the warning sound for the shock went off the control group jumped away but the group that received the shock didnt move
Outcome of Overmeier and Seligman Experiment Humans who suffered painful experiences they could not avoid or escape may simply give up and react to disappointment in life by becoming inactive, withdrawn, and depressed
Created by: Rootb
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards