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68wm6 p2 Pren Car

Prenatal Care

QuestionAnswer
What is TPAL an abbreviation for? *T-term infants *P-preterm infants *A-aborted pregnancies *L-living children now
What is often the first sign of pregnancy? Amenorrhea
When does nausea and vomiting begin and end? Begins about 6 weeks after LMP began and usually disappears by about 14 weeks
What causes nausea and vomiting during pregnancy? Increase hormones and Decreased gastric motility
Define presumptive signs of pregnancy: indicators that a woman may be pregnant, but these signs may also be indicators of other conditions not related to pregnancy.
What are some presumptive signs of pregnancy? *Amenorrhea *Nausea and vomiting *Breast changes: swelling and tenderness. *Urinary frequency. *Fatigue. *Quickening. *Change in shape of abdomen. *Skin changes. *Chadwick’s sign
Define probable signs of pregnancy: Signs that are observable during the physical and obstetrical exam and can be documented by the examiner.
What are some probable signs of pregnancy? *Goodell's sign *Abdominal enlargement: accompanied by amenorrhea *Hegar's sign *Braxton-Hicks contractions *Ballottement *Fetal outline *Pregnancy tests
What is goodells sign? softening of the cervix and vagina.
What is hegars sign? softening of the lower uterine segment
What is ballottement? palpatory maneuver by which the fetal part is displaced
How is the fetal outline found? by palpation after the 24th week.
What are three pregnancy tests? *Radioimmunoassay (RIA) *ELISA *Home Pregnancy Test Kits
What are positive signs of pregnancy (The only signs accepted as positive confirmation)? *Fetal Heartbeat *Fetal Movements *Visualization of Fetus
What is the average duration of a term of pregnancy? 40 weeks (280 days) after the first day of the last normal menstrual period (LNMP). It is also called 10 "lunar" months of 28 days each or 9 calendar months.
How is pregnancy divided? into three 13-week parts called trimesters
What is the Nageles rule in calculating the Estimated Due Date (EDD) Identify the first day of the last normal menstrual period ,Count backward 3 months, Add 7 days
What are the methods of calculating EDD? *Nageles rule *Gestational wheel *Electronic calculator *Physical exam *Ultrasound
When does finding a comfortable position for rest become a problem? 3rd trimester
Fill in the blanks: Women who have no medical or obstetric complications should exercise in moderation each day for _________ or more during pregnancy 30 minutes
What are ideal exersizes during pregnancy? Walking, swimming, and water exercises
In what position is exersizing unsafe, and why? Supine position, because it may cause decreased cardiac output and hypotension.
Fill in the blanks: ___________ protects pregnant women from infections that may develop if normal flora multiplies Daily bathing
What is maternal hypothermia during the first trimester associated with? Fetal anomalies
Fill in the blanks: Caution the pregnant woman not be in a sauna for more than _________ or a hot tub for more than ________ and to keep her head and chest out of the water 15 minutes, 10 minutes
What is douching during pregnancy associated with? infection, preterm labor, and low birth weight
Fill in the blanks: Despite increased vaginal discharge, ________ is unnecessary before, during or after pregnancy Douching
After what week of pregnancy do physicians discourage flying? 36 weeks
What must the pregnant woman prevent while flying? DVT
What are good ways to reduce nausea? *Dry toast or crackers before rising in the morning. *Fluids between meals rather than with meals. *Small, frequent meals. *Avoid fried, greasy or spicy foods and foods with strong odors
What are good ways to reduce ligament pain? *Good body mechanics and avoid very strenuous exercise *Avoid stretching and twisting at the same time *Bend toward the pain, squat, or bring the knees up to chest *Heating pad
What are good ways to reduce backache? *Maintain correct posture *Good body mechanics *Arm rests, foot supports and pillows *Exercises
What are good ways to reduce constipation? *Drink at least 8 glasses of water/day *Add fiber and avoid over consumption of *cheese *Curtail the intake of sweets *Take Iron as ordered
What are good ways to reduce varicosities? *Avoid constricting clothing and crossing legs. *Elevate legs when resting. *Support hose. *Avoid prolonged standing. Walk around every couple of hours
What are good ways to reduce hemorrhoids? *Anesthetic ointments, witch hazel pads or rectal suppositories. *Sitz baths. *Avoid constipation
What are good ways to reduce heartburn? *Eat small meals throughout the day *Advise to sit up for 30 min after eating and sleep with extra pillows *Use deep breathing and sips of water *May use TUMS or other low sodium antacid. *Do not drink liquids 2 hours before sleep at night
What are good ways to reduce Nasal Stuffiness and Epistaxis? *Raise humidity in house with use of vaporizers *Blow nose gently. *If bleeding occurs, apply pressure and ice and call health care provider if bleeding lasts >5 min. *Saline drops
What are good ways to reduce dyspnea? *Prop upper torso when resting. *Avoid overloading stomach
What are good ways to reduce leg cramps? *Stretch affected muscle until spasm relaxes. *Use massage and heat over affected muscle. *Consult health care provider for ways to restore calcium-phosphorus ratio in the body
What are good ways to reduce ankle edema? *Rest. *Elevate legs. *Avoid restrictive clothing. *Exercise moderately - water aerobics if okay with provider. *DIURETICS CONTRAINDICATED
What is the recommended pregnancy weight gain for a normal woman? 25-35 pounds
What is the recommended pregnancy weight gain for an underweight woman? 28-40 pounds
What is the recommended pregnancy weight gain for an obese woman? 15 pounds
What is the recommended pregnancy weight gain for twins woman? 35-45 pounds
How much weight should be gained the 1st trimester? How much for the remainder? 3.5 in 1st trimester, Just under one pound per week for remainder
How much protein per day should the pregnant woman eat? 25g/day over normal diet
How much calcium per day should the pregnant woman eat? 1000mg/day over normal diet
How much iron per day should the pregnant woman eat? 30mg/day over normal diet
How much folic acid per day should the pregnant woman eat? 0.6mg/day over normal diet
Define pica: the craving and eating of substances that are not normally considered edible. Substances such as clay, ice, dirt, or laundry starch are commonly ingested
What ethnic groups are more likely to require calcium supplements, and why? People from Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Hispanics due to higher rates of lactose intolerance.
What are 3 methods of prepared childbirth? *Dick-Read Method *Bradley Method *Lamaze
What is the bradley method of childbirth? Focuses on natural, drug free childbirth, and abdominal breathing
What is the dick-read method of childbirth? Natural childbirth with as little intervention from obstetricians and health professionals as possible, interrupting the pain/fear/anxiety to reduce pain
What foods are good sources of calcium? Dairy products, green leafy vegetables, salmon and sardines
What foods are good sources of iron? *Fish *Red meats *Whole grains *Dried beans and peas *Dried fruits *Leafy green vegetables
Why is sodium no longer restricted in pregnancy and diuretics not advised? Excess fluid may support blood volume in the mother, should hemorrhage occur.
Created by: Shanejqb