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68wm6 p2 Phy Preg De

Physiology of Pregnancy and Prenatal Developement

Define gametogenesis: the development of ova in the woman and sperm in the man
Define Oogenesis: formation of female gamete
Define spermatogenesis: formation of male gamete.
Define meiosis: the process in which cells divide to form gametes
What is conception? Human fertilization occurs when the sperm penetrates an ovum and unites it.
When does ovulation begin? approximately 14 days before a woman’s next menstrual cycle
The egg is estimated to survive no longer than what after its release at ovulation? 24 hours
How long after release from ovary does the ovum reach the uterus? approximately 3 days
Fill in the blanks: most sperm survive no longer than _________ in the female reproductive tract, but a few may remain fertile for up to _________ 24 hours, 5 days
Out of the millions of sperm released, how many reach the fallopian tube? Fewer than 200
True or False: Mature sperm immediadely ejaculated have the best fertilization rate False. It is during the trip to the ovum, they undergo changes that enable one of them to penetrate the protective layers surrounding the ovum, a process called capacitation.
What is capacitation? The change undergone by spermatozoa in the female genital tract that enables them to penetrate and fertilize an egg.
What is fertilization? when one spermatozoon enters the ovum and the two nuclei containing the parents’ chromosomes merge.
Where does fertilization occur? In the distal 3rd of the fallopian tube near the ovary
When is fertilization complete and cell division can begin? when the nuclei of the sperm and ovum unit
When is the pre-embryonic period? the first 2 weeks after conception
When does the zygote (blastocyst) enter the uterus? Around the 4th day after conception, when the blastocyst contains approximately 100 cells
When does the zygote become a morula? The zygote divides until it reaches 16 cells at which time it is called a morula
What does a morula resemble? A mulberry
Fill in the blanks: The outer cells of the morula secrete fluid, forming a __________, a sac of cells with an inner cell mass placed off center within the sac Blastocyst
Part of the outer layer cells of the blastocyst develope into what? Placenta and fetal membranes
How long does the blastocyst linger in the uterus before beginning implantations? 2 to 4 days
What is the endometrium called once the blastocyst implants? Decidua
What does the decidua do after blastocyst implants and before placental circulation is established? secretes rich fluids to nourish the zygote
When does implantation of the blastocyst into the uterus occur? between the 6th and 10th day after conception
What does the zygote/blastocyst secrete to signal a continuing supply of estrogen and progesterone? Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Where does normal implantation occur? in the upper uterus, slightly more often on the posterior wall than the anterior wall
HOW is the zygote nourished with nutrients before circulatory system is established? Primary chorionic villi form that nourish the zygote by diffusion
What will the Primary chorionic villi eventually become? The fetal side of the placenta
When is the zygote/blastocyst fully imbedded within the uterous? by 10 days
The zygote implants around the same timeline as what, and what may occur? usually near the time of the next menstrual period, a small amount of bleeding (which may be confused with the normal period)
When is the embryonic period? 3rd week through the 8th week after conception
Fill in the blanks: By the end of the 8th week, all _____ _____ systems are in place in the fetus and many are _______, although in a simple way Major organ systems, functioning
The rapidly developing structures of the embryo are vulnerable to damage from what? teratogens (drugs, viruses, radiation, and infectious agents)
When is the fetal stage? 9th week until birth
How does zygote growth proceed? cephalocaudal and central-to-peripheral direction (head to bottom, central to outward)
What are the 3 primary cell layers of the embryo? *Ectoderm *Mesoderm *Endoderm
When is the unborn child at most risk from teratogenic agents? During the embryonic phase when growth is most rapid
What forms in the embryo in week 3? *Neural tube forms. *Primitive brain. *Primitive spinal cord. *A primitive or tubular heart
When does the embryos heart begin beating? 22-23 days after conception
When does the neural tube close, and what can prevent its closure? week 4, folic acid deficiency
When does the embryonic heart form 4 chambers? weeks 4-5
When is the most notable intestinal growth? week 7
When are fingers and toes formed? week 8
when do first fetal movements begin? weeks 9-12
When does urine production begin? weeks 9-12
When can gender be determined? end of 12th week
When does quickening begin? weeks 13-16
When does lanugo (fine hair), eyebrows, and head hair present? weeks 17-20
What is brown fat? special heat-producing fat that helps newborn maintain temperature stability after birth
When is brown fat deposited? weeks 17-20
When do the lungs begin to produce surfactant? weeks 21-24, alveoli are still immature
When are fetuses more likely to survive if born as lungs and CNS have matured? weeks 25-28
When does fetus assume head down position? weeks 25-28
When do fingernails and toenails present? weeks 29-32
When does the rate of growth slow? weeks 33-38
What is the placenta? disk-like organ made up of about 15-20 segments (cotyledons) that is present only during pregnancy, and is the site of exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products between mother and child
What four hormones does the placenta produce? *Progesterone. *Estrogen. *Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). *Human placental lactogen (hPL).
What appearance does the maternal side of the placenta have, and why? a "beefy" red appearance due to the large number of arterioles and venules.
What is the maternal side of the placenta referred to as? “Dirty Duncan”.
What appearance does the fetal membrane of the placenta have? a grayish, shiny appearance
What is the fetal membrane referred to as? “Shiny Schultz”.
How many fetal membranes are there? two, though they are so close as to be one (the “bag of waters”), and they can be separated
What is the inner fetal membrane? The amnion
What is the outer fetal membrane? The chorion
What is the amniotic sac? A sac made up of the chorion and the amnion that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid
How does the amniotic fluid appear normally? Clear and yellowish
What is needed for symmetrical developement of the fetus? adequate amounts of amniotic fluid
What is the volume of amniotic fluid at 40 weeks? 700-800 ml
What are the components of amniotic fluid? *Albumin. *Urea. *Bilirubin. *Vernix. *Lanugo. *Fructose. *Fat.
What may be tested to determine the health and development of the fetus during the later stages of pregnancy? How early can it be tested? Amniotic fluid, 8 weeks
What does the placenta contain? 2 arteries and one vein
What do the arteries of the placenta carry? deoxygenated blood back and waste products away from the fetus to the placenta
What does the placental vein carry? freshly oxygenated and nutrient-laden blood to the fetus
What protects the umbilical cord from compression? Wharton's jelly
What kind of pain does the umbilical cord transmit? Trick question. It has no pain receptors.
Which hormone provides for the expansion needed during pregnancy of the uterus, breast and breast glandular tissues, also plays a role in increasing vascularity and vasodilatation of the villous capillaries of the placenta? Estrogen
What happens with a newborns first breath? lungs expand and the fluid within them is absorbed into the pulmonary circulation
What causes the foramen ovale to close? the pressure in the left atrium exceeding the pressure in the right atrium
What causes the ductus arteriosus to close? the increased oxygen content of the newborn's blood
What is the foramen ovale? An opening from the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetus
What is the route of circulation in the fetus? Vena cava -> Right atrium -> Left atrium -> left ventricle -> aorta
How are twins classified? monozygotic and dizygotic
What are monozygotic twins? The twins carry the same genetic code and are the same sex share a placenta, but each has a separate umbilical cord
What are dizygotic twins? These twins have a separate placenta, and the sex and genetic makeup can vary. Dizygotic twins are no more closely related than siblings born at different times
Fill in the blanks: ______ ______ are more common in twins Birth defects
What are the three ducts in fetal circulation? *Portal sinus *Ductus venosus *Ductus arteriosus
What are the three ducts in fetal circulation? *Portal sinus *Ductus venosus *Ductus arteriosus
Created by: Shanejqb