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Mr Mac's Geology

Intro to Earth's history

What do we call the study of how the Earth was formed and changed? geology
What is "evidence preserved in rock of an ancient organism's activities" called? Trace fossil
What do we call the study of ancient life? paleontology
Would a paleontologist ever study rocks? Yes. Paleontologist need to learn about the Earth's history to learn about the kinds of life that once lived.
What do we call a naturally occurring process that slowly creates changes on Earth's surface? a geological process
If a geologist found an interesting sample of rock while hiking, which technique could he use to immediately determine the approximate age of it? Relative dating
Which dating technique would a scientist use to find the age of a sample of leaves found frozen in ice? Carbon dating
What do scientists call evidence of ancient life preserved as rock or minerals? Fossils
What is the "engine" that makes the spectacular changes on Earth's surface possible? Time
He was one of the 1st people to propose that Earth was much older than earlier believed. Charles Lyell
How old is the Earth? About 4.6 billion years old
How do absolute dating methods work? By measuring the amount of atomic decay. Certain elements always decay at a predictable rate, so scientist just measure the amount of change. decay = years
What do we call the study of Earth's history and structure? geology
What are marks or material often left in rock layers by prehistoric living things. Fossils
Name the fossil that is formed from minerals slowly replacing the organic material of a living thing. petrified
When testing the age of a rock and no daughter elements are found, we know that the rock is very... young.
Which absolute dating technique can find the age of things millions of years old? Radiometric. Carbon dating is good for only about 100,000 years.
The top layer of Earth is called the... crust
Earth's crust is about how deep on average? 30km or 100,000ft (about 10 miles) Much thicker on continents and thinner at ocean floors
For something to become a fossil it needs what to happen? A quick burial and to be removed from oxygen.
For something to be called a fossil it usually needs to be over __________ years old. 10,000
Where are all fossils found? on Earth's crust -usually only in sedimentary rock
What would Earth have been like 4.6 billion years ago? Hot no oxygen in the atmosphere Volcanoes and lava everywhere (heavy volcanic activity) many meteorite collisions no liquid water very little water vapor also
When testing the age of a rock and most of the radioactive elements have changed into daughter elements, we know that the rock is... old
Which fossil resembles a picture, image or print drawn on rock? carbon film
The uplifting and folding of Earth's crust affect a geologists ability to easily date rocks using which method? relative dating
Coprolite is what 2 kinds of fossils? trace and petrified
Evidence of a prehistoric animals daily activities preserved in rock is what kind of fossil? Trace
Organic material (once living things) that was slowly replaced by sediments and or minerals is what kind of fossil? petrified
When a prehistoric organism is preserved in a way that is not as stable as other fossils and still contains organic tissue, we call it a... original remains/whole animal fossil.
Trace fossils are quite often also this kind of fossil because of the imprints left in sedimentary rock. mold
You can't have a cast fossil without a... mold.
If a mold gets filled in with sand, clay, crushed shells or other debris it may form a __________ fossil in millions of years. cast
About how long was the Precambrian Era? About 4,000,000,000 years (that's 4 billion)
In which Era did the Appalachian Mountains form? Paleozoic
Which era ended with the largest know extinction of life? Paleozoic
What happens to radioactive elements in rocks? They decay at very predictable rates. Because of this we can use them to measure time.
Massive forests of ferns lived during which era? Paleozoic
Continental collisions caused much of the Earth's crust to raise up and many of the swamps to dry out in which era? Paleozoic
What formed from the swamps drying out and the forests of ferns dying? Coal beds
Which era had land plants but not many land animals? Paleozoic
Which Era is often called the "Age of Invertebrates"? Paleozoic
Dinosaurs lived during which era? Mesozoic
Which Era is often called the "Age of Reptiles"? Mesozoic
The Sierra Nevada Mountains in California formed in which era? Mesozoic
Flowers and birds first evolved in which era? Mesozoic
Mammals evolved towards the end of which era? Mesozoic
The super continent Pangaea was around during these 2 eras. Paleozoic and mesozoic
Which mountain range is younger, the Sierra Nevada or Appalachian? Sierra Nevada
The coal beds that are now being mined were formed from ____________ during the Paleozoic era. dead ferns and other organic material
Humans first appeared during which era? Cenozoic
What are Homo sapiens? The species of humans that you are!
If all of geological time was only 12 hours, how long would the Cenozoic era be? about 1 minute -right at the end
What are we sure will happen to Earth in the future? It will continue to change.
What do scientists believe caused the mass extinction that ended the Mesozoic Era? a large meteorite hit the Earth.
Rocks are made of what? Minerals
What are minerals? Minerals are naturally occurring, solid chemical compounds with a crystal structure and a specific chemical composition.
What geologist read Lyell's book and came up with the Theory of Evolution? Charles Darwin
The Law of Superposition assumes that... lower layers of rock are older than layers closer to the surface.
plate tectonics and the theory of continental drift both support the idea that... the Earth's surface is slowly changing due to the movement of Earth's tectonic plates and compression, tension and shear forces.
Fossils are usually found in what kind of rock? Sedimentary
What forces Earth's crust/tectonic plates to move? The upwelling of liquid magma beneath them. These convection currents of magma force plates apart at divergent plate boundaries.
Fossils are normally found in what kind of rock? Sedimentary
What are the different types of rocks? Sedimentary, Igneous and Metamorphic
What are faults? Deep cracks in Earth's rocky outer layer or crust
What is a convergent plate boundary? A place on Earth's surface where compression forces are making 2 tectonic plates collide, one plate will subduct under the other.
Where are volcanoes most often found? Along plate boundaries (most often convergent plate boundaries) and mantle hotspots
What is a transform plate boundary? A place on Earth's surface where shear forces are making 2 tectonic plates slide past each other.
What is a divergent plate boundary? A place on Earth's surface where tension forces are making 2 tectonic plates move away from each other.
The opening of a volcano is called a _______. This is where lava, ash, cinders, steam and other hot gases escape. vent.
What is a volcano? An opening in Earth's crust above a magma chamber with the potential for an eruption.
Folded mountains form at which type of plate boundary? Convergent
Mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys form at which type of plate boundary? Divergent
What causes Continental Drift? Plate Tectonics -the movement of magma beneath the crust.
Who devised the idea of Continental Drift? Wegener
Plate Tectonics can be blamed for what 3 things? Volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain formation
Earthquakes happen most often near faults and ... plate boundaries.
What is Continental Drift? The theory that the continents were once connected and that they have moved away from each other.
Created by: MrMac