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68wm6 p2 STD's

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

QuestionAnswer
How does herpes present? *Fluid-filled vesicles on the cervix, labia, rectum, vulva, vagina, or skin of females *Fluid-filled vesicles on the glans penis, foreskin, or penile shaft of men.
How long does the initial lesions of herpes persist? 3 - 10 days
How long does the recurrent lesions of herpes persist? 7 - 10 days
What is the medical management of herpes? *Lesions heal spontaneously *Lidocaine *Acyclovir (Zovirax) *Valacyclovir (Valtrex) *Famciclovir (Famvir)
What is the organism that causes syphilis? T. Pallidum
How is syphilis transmitted? *Transmission through sexual contact *Contact with infectious lesions *Sharing of needles *Prenatal infection is possible
What are the stages of syphilis? *Primary Stage *Secondary Stage *Latent Stage *Tertiary Stage
How is syphilis diagnosed? Lab tests: VDRL, RPR
What is the medical management of syphilis? Parenteral penicillin (antibiotics)
What is the organism that causes gonorrhea? N. gonorrhoeae (bacteria)
How is gonorrhea diagnosed? Cultures
What is the medical management of gonorrhea? *Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) *Cefixime (Suprax)
What happens if the vesicles from herpes rupture? Vesicles may rupture and develop into shallow, painful ulcers that are erythematous with marked edema and tenderness.
Does the medical management of herpes cure it? Not a cure for HSV, but it shortens the duration of viral shedding, the healing time of genital lesions, and suppresses 75% of recurrences with daily use
True or False: syphilis only affects the mucous membranes and the reproductive tract False. The spirochete penetrates intact skin as well as openings in the mucous membranes of the genital organs, rectum, and mouth.
What is the primary stage of syphilis? chancre appears (a painless erosion or papule that ulcerates superficially with a scooped-out appearance)
What is the secondary stage of syphilis? *Skin rashes. *Moist, raised, gray-to-pink lesions of the genital or perirectal skin. *Enlarged lymph nodes
What is the Latent stage of syphilis? *Dementia. *Pain or loss of sensation in the legs. *Destruction of the aorta. *Destructive inflammatory masses can appear in any organ
What is Type one herpes? Cold sores ect
What is Type two herpes? Sexually transmitted
What is the tertiary stage of syphilis? *Heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular syphilis) often involved. *Central nervous system (neurosyphilis) often involved. *Tabes dorsalis. *Paresis. *Various psychoses may result.
How is syphilis diagnosed? *Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test. *Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR).
What should all PTs with syphilis be checked for as well? Gonorrhea
What is the medical management of syphilis? Parenteral penicillin (Tx of choice)
What is the organism that causes gonorrhea? N. gonorrhoeae (Bacteria)
What is the incubation period of gonorrhea? 3 - 5 days
What are the S/Sx of gonorrhea in men? *Men may be asymptomatic after the incubation period but in a short time develop signs and symptoms. *Urethritis. *Dysuria. *Infection with a purulent discharge. *Edema of the affected area.
What are the S/Sx of gonorrhea in women? *Most remain asymptomatic. *May have a greenish-yellow discharge from cervix. *Purulent discharge from the urethra. *Pruritus. *Burning and pain of the vulva *Vaginal engorgement and erythema *Abdominal pain and distention
What are the non-gender specific S/Sx of gonorrhea? *Pharyngitis. *Tonsillitis. *Rectal burning, pruritus, purulent rectal discharge.
How is gonorrhea diagnosed? Cultures from the site of infection isolate the organism and establish an identification.
Within how cultures from gonorrhea secretion are taken can a definitive diagnosis be provided? 24 - 48 hours
What other infection has been found in 45% of gonorrhea cases? Coexisting chlamydial infection
Fill in the blanks: Treatment of gonorrhea in the early stage __________ but ___________ is common. is curable, recurrance
What is the medical management of gonorrhea? *ceftriaxone (Rocephin) *cefixime (Suprax)
When is Tx of gonorrhea initiated without awaiting culture results? if there is a history of sexual contact with a partner known to have gonorrhea
What should be avoided while on Tx for gonorrhea? Intercourse and alchohol
What is the organism that causes Trichomoniasis? T. vaginalis (protozoa)
Trichomoniasis affects what percentage of sexually active women and men? 15% of women, and 10% of men.
What is the incubation period of Trichomoniasis? 4 - 28 days
Fill in the blanks: T. vaginalis thrives when the vaginal mucosa is more _________ than normal Alkaline
What percentage of women are asymptomatic of trichomoniasis? 70%
What are the S/Sx of trich in men? *Mild to severe transient urethritis. *Dysuria. *Urinary frequency. *Pruritus. *Purulent exudate.
What are the S/Sx of trich in women? *Profuse, frothy, gray, green, or yellow, malodorous discharge. *Menorrhagia. *Dysmenorrhea *Pruritus. *Edema. *Tenderness of vagina. *Dysuria.
How is trich diagnosed? microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge that identifies T. vaginalis.
What is the Tx of trich? Oral metronidazole (Flagyl) in small doses for 7 days or a single large dose
What should the PT on Tx for trich avoid? alcoholic beverages because alcohol can cause reaction with the medication such as disorientation, headache, cramps, vomiting, and possible convulsions.
What can metronidazole do to the PTs urine? turn urine dark brown.
What is the medical name for venereal warts? Condyloma
What causes condyloma? human papilloma virus (HPV)
What is the medical management of condyloma? *HPV cannot be cured, just removed *Podophyllin *Surgical removal *Frozen
What organism causes candidiasis? Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis
When does candidiasis infection most often occur? *when the glucose level rises from diabetes mellitus *when resistance is lowered from diseases such as carcinoma.
How is candidiasis diagnosed? Gram stain
What is the medical management of candidiasis? *Controlling diabetes mellitus *Discontinuing antibiotics/oral contraceptives *Nystatin (Mycostatin)
What are the common STDs chlamydia causes? *Cervicitis and urethritis are the most common *Epididymitis *Sappingitis *PID *Conjunctivitis and pneumonia in newborns
What STD may be the most common, but due to it not being a reportable disease actual number of cases is unknown? Chlamydia
Who is chlamydia most common in? young, promiscuous, indigent, unmarried women who live in the inner city and in those who have a prior history of STDs.
True or False: Chlamydia may be asymptomatic True
How is chlamydia diagnosed? *Culturing *Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA)
What is the medical management of chlamydia? *Tetracycline *Doxycycline (Vibramycin) *Ofloxacin (Floxin) *Azithromycin (Zithromax) *Erythromycin
What chlamydia Tx is the drug of choice for use during pregnancy? Erythromycin
What is being prescribed for primary herpes genitalis to shorten the duration of the healing of genital lesions? acyclovir (Zovirax)
Acyclovir (Zovirax) suppresses what percentage of recurrance of herpes with daily use? 75%
because of penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, penicillin, the former drug of choice for treatment of gonorrhea, has been changed to what? ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
What should most PTs with an STD wear? Loose-fitting clothing and cotton underwear
What increases the pH of the vagina, and what organism thrives when the vaginal mucosa is more alkaline? *Frequent douching and use of oral contraceptives and antibiotics raise the normal pH of the vagina *T. Vaginalis
Created by: Shanejqb