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Ch . 11 Personality

QuestionAnswer
Personality A individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving .
Personality theory A theory that attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people's patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, which emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development.
Free association A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind.
Unconscious In Freud's theory, a term used to describe thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness
id Latin for the it; in Freud's theory, the completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by the pleasure principle
Eros The self-preservation or life instinct, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species
Libido The psychological and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality; the sex drive
Thanatos the death instinct, reflected in aggressive, destructive, and self-destructive actions
Pleasure Principle the motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort; the most fundamental human motive and the guiding principle of the id
Ego Latin for l; in Freud's theory, the partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world
Reality Principle the capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist
Superego the partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules
ego defense mechanisms Largely unconscious distortions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety
Repression the unconscious exclusion of anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness; the most fundamental ego defense mechanism
Displacement the ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous
Sublimation An ego defense mechanism that involves redirecting sexual urges toward productive socially acceptable, nonsexual activities, a dorm of displacement
Psychosexual stages In Freud's theory, age-related developmental periods in which the child's sexual urges are focused on different areas of the body and are expressed through the activities associated with those areas
Oedipus complex In Freud's theory, a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent
Identification in psychoanalytic theory, an ego defense mechanism that involves reducing anxiety by irritating the behavior and characteristics of another person
Collective Unconscious in Jung's theory, the hypothesized part of the unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains universally shared ancestral experiences and ideas
Archetypes in Jung's theory, the inherited mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are the main components of the collective unconscious
Humanistic psychology the theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development
Actualizing tendency in Roger's theory, the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism
Self-concept the set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about yourself
Conditional positive regard in Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others, conditional love or acceptance
Unconditional positive regard in Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don't conform to the standards and expectations of others; unconditional love or acceptance
Social cognitive theory Albert Bandura's theory of personality which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determination
Reciprocal determinism a model proposed by psychologist Albert Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors
Self-efficacy the beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feeling of self-confidence or self-doubt
Trait a relatively stable, enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way
Trait theory A theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions
Surface traits Personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior
Source traits the most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number
Five-factor model of personality a trait theory of personality that identifies extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality
Behavioral genetics an interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior
psychological test a test that assesses a person's abilities, aptitudes, interests, or personality, on the basis of a systematically obtained sample of behavior
Projective test a type of personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image, used to assess unconscious motives, cnflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits
Rorschach inkblot test a projective test using inkblots, developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921
Graphology a pseudoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and occupational attributed based on a person's distinctive handwriting, doodles, and drawing style
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) a projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of ambiguous scenes
Self-report inventory a type of psychological test in which a person's responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) a self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics and psychological disorders; used to assess both normal and disturbed populations
California Personality Inventory (CPI) a self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics in normal populations
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) A self-report inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with ratings on 16 trait dimensions
Created by: takiah_shinae