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Adkison Genetics 2

Test 2 for Adkison's Genetics Class at WCU

Gene a segment of DNA that codes for a protein
Alleles Alternative forms of the same gene
Locus A location on a chromosome
Chromosome the vehicle of inheritance; a DNA molecule and associated proteins
Chromatid one of two DNA molecules making up a replicated chromosome
Homologous pair/chromosomes a pair of the same kind of chromosome;a pair of chromosomes that carry the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles
Ploidy the number of each kind of chromosome in a cell. A cell with two of each kind is 2N (diploid). A cell with six of each kind is 6N (hexaploid). A cell with one of each kind is 1N (haploid).
Relationship between genes, allele, and locus Each genes occurs at a different locus on a chromosome. An allele is one of multiple possible DNA sequences making up a gene at a particular locus on a chromosome.
Relationship between gene and chromosome A chromosome is made of many genes. A gene makes up part of a chromosome.
Relationship between a DNA and chromosome. A chromosome is a DNA molecule (and some associated proteins)
Relationship between chromosome and chromatid A replicated chromosome is made of two chromatids (ex. two identical DNA molecules)
Relationship between nucleotide and nucleic acid Nucleic acid is a chain of nucleotides. If nucleic acid is a chain, then nucleotides are the links.
What kind of chemical bond links nucleotides together in DNA and in RNA? covalent bonds (bonds in which two atoms share electrons)
What kind of chemical bond links one strand of DNA to another strand of DNA in a DNA molecule? hydrogen bonds -- partially positively charged H atoms on N-containing bases of one strand are attracted to partially negatively charged areas on N-containing bases of the other strand
How many strands of DNA make up an unreplicated chromosome? two
How many strands of DNA make up a replicated chromosome? four
Describe the relationship between amino acide, polypeptide, and protein Any chain of amino acids is a polypeptide. Proteins are polypeptides, but not all polypeptides are proteins.
What does a gene "do"? A gene is a code for making protein. It "tells" mRNA how to make a protein.
What does messenger RNA (mRNA) "do"? mRNA joins with tRNA
What does transfer RNA (tRNA) "do"? tRNA joins with an amino acid that is specific to the particular version of tRNA, and it "carries" that amino acid to the complex of mRNA and rRNA so that the amino acid can be joined to other amino acids to make a particular protein.
What does ribosomal RNA (rRNA) "do"? rRNA joins with mRNA and tRNA to make a protein by linking particular amino acids together in a particular sequence that is described by the mRNA.
What does the combination of mRNA, rRNA, and multiple molecules of tRNA "do"? they make proteins by linking together particular amino acids in a particular sequence.
How do amino acids differ from each other? The "R group" is a shorthand way of identifying a side chain that can be anything or any hydrocarbon. Thus, amino acids that differ from each other are identical except for their R groups.
Transcriptions "to copy" the phase of protein synthesis the nucleotide sequence of a gene is copied as the nucleotide sequence of mRNA.
Translation converting one language into another. the phase of protein synthesis the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is converted into the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Transcribe: DNA into RNA DNA A - RNA U DNA T - RNA A DNA C- RNA G DNA G - RNA C George Clooney-Tim Allen
Meiosis a process of nuclear division in which the chromosome number is reduced by half. It is the process of creating gamets.
Relationship between DNA replication and the duplication of a chromosome DNA replication is the process by whci which a chromosome makes a copy of itself (i.e. duplicates)
Gamete sex cell (egg or sperm)
Zygote a single cell made up of an egg and sperm that have fused
Relationship between gamete and zygote two gametes fuse together making a zygote
Created by: hlkeeley2