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Renal

Pharmacology: Renal

QuestionAnswer
Where do the following act in the renal tubule? 1. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 2. Thiazides 3. Aldosterone antagonist 1. proximal convoluted tubule 2. distal convoluted tubule 3. collecting duct
Where do the following act in the renal tubule? 1. furosemide 2. mannitol 3. ADH antagonist 1. ascending limb 2. loop of henle 3. collecting duct
What is the mechanism of action of Acetazolamide that contributes to its effectiveness as a diuretic? Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Prevents bicarb and H+ synthesis within the proximal tubule. Na+ is usually taken up in exchange for H+. Thus, biarb and Na+ are lost.
What are the clinical uses of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors? 1. glaucoma 2. acute altitude sickness 3. edema accompanied by alkalosis
Mechanism of action of furosemide inhibit the Na/K/Cl carrier in the ascending limb
How can loop and thiazide diuretics result in hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis? 1. by inhibiting Na reabsorption in ascending loop of Henle and DCT respectively, more Na is presented to the collecting tubule 2. Na/K+ exchangers secrete K+ 3. Na/H exchanges secrete H+
1. Mechanism of action of amiloride and triamteren 2. Mechanism of action of spironolactone and eplerenone 1. block electrogenic Na+ channel in collecting duct 2. aldosterone antagonist
1. treatment of Conn's syndrome? 2. Which diuretics cause hyperuricemia? Why? 1. spironolactone 2. thiazides 3. loop diuretics and thiazides compete with urate for active secretion into proximal tubule
1. Patient with sulfa allergy needs a diuretic 2. Diuretic causing hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. 1. Ethacrynic acid 2. Loop diuretic (positive charge buildup in lumen prevents passive reabsorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+)
1. Most potent diuretic class 2. Which diuretic can help reduce motality in heart failure 1. loop diuretics 2. Spironolactone
1. Diuretic causing hypercalcemia. 2. Why? 1. Thiazide 2. Since the luminal NaCl symporter is inactivated, the basolateral Na/Ca antiporter attempts to draw more Na+ into the distal tubule cell causing more Ca2+ to enter blood stream.
Diuretic causing ototoxicity Ethacrynic acid
Mechanism of action of Losartan angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Which diuretic is contraindicated with bialteral renal artery stenosis? ACE inhibits because they significantly ↓ GFR
Why do ACE inhibits cause angioedema? ACE breaks down bradykinin. With inhibitor, bradykinin accumulates.
Created by: amichael87