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Ch. 19

A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life on Earth

What is an amniotic egg? An egg with a hard outer casing and an inner series of membranes and fluids that provide protection, nutrients, and waste disposal for a growing embryo.
What is an angiosperm? A flowering seed plant whose seeds are enclosed within the tissue called fruit. _____ are the most dominant and diverse of the four principal types of plants. Examples include roses, cacti, corn, and deciduous trees.
What is Archaea? With Bacteria and Eukarya, one of the three domains of the living world, composed solely of microscopic, single-celled organisms superficially similar to bacteria but genetically quite different. Many of the ____ live in extreme environments
What is Bacteria? With Archaea and Eukarya, one of three domains of the living world, composed solely of single-celled, microscopic organisms that superficially resemble Archaea but that are genetically quite different.
What are bryophytes? A plant that lacks a vascular (fluid transport) structure. _____ are the most primitive of the four principal varieties of living plants. Mosses are the most familiar example.
What is a Cambrian Explosion? The sudden appearance of the ancestors of most modern animals beginning in the Cambrian Period, 542 million years ago.
What is a continental drift? The movement of continental plates over the globe, allowing continents to divide and rejoin in different patterns.
What is Cretaceous Extinction? A mass extinction event that occurred at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. This event, which included an asteroid impact, resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs along with many other organisms.
What is Eukarya? With Bacteria and Archaea, one of three domains of the living world, composed of four subordinate kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protista. All members of this domain are composed of single cells or groups of cells that have a nucleus.
what is a eukaryote? An organism that is a member of domain Eukarya.
What is a gymnosperm? A seed plant whose seeds do not develop within fruit tissue. One of the four principal varieties of plants, they reproduce through wind-aided pollination. Conferous trees, such as pine and fir, are the most familiar examples.
What is a Permian Extinction? The greatest mass extinction event in Earth's history. This event, in which up to 96% of all species on Earth were wiped out, occurred about 251 million years ago.
What is a prokaryote? A single-celled organism whose complement of DNA is not contained within a nucleus.
What is phylum? A category of living things, directly subordinate to the category of kingdom, whose members share traits as a result of shared ancestry. In animals, a group of animals that have a similar structural makeup.
What is a ribozyme? A molecule composed of RNA that can both encode genetic information and act as an enzyme. Molecules similar to these may have been necessary early in the origin of life.
What is a seedless vascular plant? A plant that has a vascular (fluid transport) structure but that does not reproduce through use of seeds. One of the four principal varieties of plants. Ferns are the most familiar example.
Put the following in the proper time sequence, earliest first: A.) first dinosaurs B.) first bacteria C.) first amphibians D.) first primates E.) oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere F.) first land plants G.) first birds 1. B-first bacteria 2. E-oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere 3. F-first land plants 4. C-first amphibians 5. A-first dinosaurs 6. D-first primates 7. G-first birds
The time-frames in the geological timescale generally denote _____. A.) 10,000 year increments B.) 10 million year increments C.) the reappearance of certain life-forms D.) transitions in life forms E.) the appearance of larger life-forms D. transitions in life-forms
The first life on Earth may have been: A.) eukaryotic cells B.) RNA molecules C.) bacteria D.) formed on land E.) algae B. RNA molecules
Which of the following characteristics of early plants were adaptations to life on land? A.) multicellularity B.) outer cuticle C.) photosynthesis D.) lack of vertical growth E.) internal embryonic development B. outer cuticle D. lack of vertical growth E. internal embryonic development
What is the order of evolution among the following organisms, earliest first? A.) amphibians B.) lobe-finned fish C.) mammals D.) reptiles E.) primates 1. B-lobe-finned fish 2. A-amphibians 3. D-reptiles 4. C-mammals 5. E-primates
Photosynthesis was an important innovation in the history of life because: It allowed living things to capture energy from the sun and it brought about the production of a large amount of food
Mitochondria and chloroplasts: A.) are organelles within cells B.) have bacterial structure C.) were early protists D.) resulted from symbiosis E.) appeared late in evolutionary history A. are organelles within cells B. have a bacterial structure D. resulted from symbiosis
What is the order of the evolution among the following organisms, earliest first: A.) gymnosperms B.) green algae C.) seedless vascular plants D.) bryophtes E.) angiosperms 1. B-green algae 2. D-bryophtes 3. C-seedless vascular plants 4. A-gymnosperms 5. E-angiosperms
Each of the eras or periods within the geological timescale is characterized by a particular grouping of ____ preserved today as _____. life-forms; fossils
True or False: The first animals and plants evolved early in life's history. False. Tod judge by the fossil record, animals and plants don't appear until the last 16% of life's history.
Life is generally regarded as having begun with the development of ____ molecules or chemical systems. self-replicating
Life has three domains, and one of these domains has four kingdoms within it. Name both the domains and the kingdoms. Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya. Within Eukarya the kingdoms are Protista, Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi.
Life is thought to have begun as early as ____ years ago. One important event that took place in the long early time span was the appearance of ____ in Earth's atmosphere, all of it produced as a by-product of photosynthesis carried out by a type of _____ 3.8 billion; oxygen; bacteria
The Cambrian Explosion was an explosion in the number of ___ life-forms. animal
All plants are thought to have evolved from water-dwelling _____. green algae
All land-dwelling vertebrates are ____, which evolved from ____. tetrapods; fish
The amniotic egg that came about in reptile evolution was important because it could be laid _____. out of water
Created by: kpalmerton