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Issues final

What is the name of test that all newborns receive? Apgar
In what year was the College Entrance Examination created? 1900
Who were the two men that created the first test of intelligence in 1905? Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
One of the major issues in Krishnamurthy et al was that there were differing ideas of what assessment was. What is the term used when multiple people come to a mutually agreed upon description? Operational Definition
According to Krishnamurthy et al, assessment competency is a hot debate topic. Which statement below is true regarding why this is so? Guidelines for training and competency are too loose.
In Meyer et al. (2001), the authors summarize evidence and issues associated with psychological assessment using data from more than 125 meta-analyses and 800 samples examining multimethod assessment. 4 general conclusions were discussed. Distinct assessment methods provide unique sources of information, Psych test validity is comparable to med test validity, Clins who rely exclusively on interviews are prone to incomplete understanding, Psych test validity is strong and compelling
When determining the appropriate use of psychological assessment, which of the following practices should be applied? Calculate cost-benefit ratios individually for each patient when working in a clinical context
__________ is a distinctive and unique aspect of psychological practice relative to the activities performed by other health care providers. assessment
Psych __ is a straightforward process, wherein a certain scale is used to obtain a specific score. __ is concerned with the clinician who takes a variety of test scores and considers them in the context of history, referral, and observed behaviour. Testing, assessment
An association of r = 1.00 is a realistic benchmark in applied psychological research. False
Data indicate that using a single method to obtain information from the patient is sufficient to develop a complete and unbiased understanding of that patient. False
College admissions tests, such as the SAT and ACT predict _______ well. 1st-year college GPA
True or False? For both high school and college institutions, knowledge of factors underlying academic success can inform the development of programs, career counseling and training materials, and college admissions criteria. True
True or False? For some minority subgroups, such as African Americans and Hispanics, performance on standardized tests tends to be substantially lower than that of Caucasians. True
True or False? Clustering individuals based on a broad range of student characteristics across motivational, affective, and cognitive domains is not helpful in understanding student behavior and performance. False
Name 2 measures of college success: Knowledge and mastery of general principles, Social responsibility and citizenship, Adaptability and life skills, Artistic and cultural appreciation
The 2001 educational reform that put a “spotlight” on under-performing schools and demand they do better is called ____ ______ ________ ______ ______ ____ . The No Child Left Behind Act
Three goals of NCLB are to close the achievement gap, bring all students up to grade-level in reading and math, and ___________________________ Hold schools accountable
True or False: One of the consequences of NCLB is the increase in instructional time spent on science and history. False
Name one possible suggestion to improving NCLB. Improve fed funding formulas to provide resources for at risk schools, maintain the reporting reqs of test scores, but include a broader picture of achievement, or Involve people who work in the schools with policy making to ensure the policy makes sense
True or False: According to Mansdorfer (2004), the 2001 Patriot Act poses an ethical dilemma for practicing psychologists. True
According to Kunsel/McNeill, standardized (admission) test scores: Provide useful information about future student performance
True or False: In ref to GRE scores predicting graduate student success, McNeill purports that measuring relevant knowledge for mastering a particular ‘content’ discipline is vastly different than measuring the ‘how-ness’ of being human with another. True
What are 2 advantages and 2 limitations of using completion and short answer questions on an assessment? Adv: flexible, minimize guessing, lend themselves to computational items, easy to write, allow for lots of items to be used Dis: machine scoring is hard, scoring can be subjective, limited scope of skills can be assessed, questions are tough to create
What are the five main purposes for which tests can be used: Selection, Placement, Diagnosis, Hypothesis Testing, Classify
What is the name of test that all newborns receive? Apgar
In the Salkind book, the author states there is a lack of reliability in tests with essay questions. According to the author, what causes the largest amount of error variance in these types of tests? The differences in grading.
What are some ways to control for variance in grading essay questions? the scorer can use a model for scoring, and standardized conditions whenever possible
Which of the following field is likely to be best assessed by a portfolio? Photography
According to Salkind, why are structured interviews more reliable and valid than unstructured interview? In unstructured interviews questions can be very open-ended allowing for a lot of subjectivity and interpretation
Placing individuals in either the high depression or low depression group based on BDI-II scores is ____level of measurement. Nominal Or Categorical
Placing community resources in order based on how important homeless veterans view those services would be ____ level of measurement. Ordinal
T/F Your score on this exam represents your true score of knowledge in Issues in Measurement. False
Cindy’s lack of sleep possibly impacting her true score is an example of _________ error. Trait
Correlating the scores from your measure at time 1 with scores from the same measure at time 2 is an example of _____reliabililty. Test-Retest
Correlating the scores from form A of your test with Form B of your assessment would test for ______reliability. Alternate/Parallel Forms
Correlating the scores for the odd items with the scores for the even items would be looking at _____reliability. Internal Consistency/Split-half
Finding the proportion of agreements in ratings across different administrators of your measure is testing for ____reliability. Interrater
T/F A decrease in z-score from test 1 to test 2, when each test is normed individually, assumes that the individual got a lower score on the second test. False
According to Salkind, Observed Score is equal to the True Score plus _______. Error
A pass/fail grade is an example of a _________-referenced score while a score that shows how well you scored compared to others is a __________-referenced score. Criterion, Norm
T/F A percentile rank of 75 means the person got 75% of the items correct. False
When hiring a candidate who meets certain skill requirements of a particular job, it would be important for an aptitude measure to have concurrent validity. Which method would best establish this type of validity? Compare candidates’ scores on the current measure with their scores on an already established and valid assessment tool that measures the same thing.
When creating an assessment, which type of Validity was the creator concerned about when he separated infant behavior into numerous observable traits, picking those that correlate highly, both positively and negatively, with his theoretical view? Construct
A researcher suspected that the subs in his study were altering their responses in order to make them seem more appropriate. He designed a new assessment which had less __ validity, so that respondents were not able to guess what was being assessed. Face
T/F The validity of a measure is limited by the reliability of that measure. True
The differential performance of groups on a test as a function of characteristics unrelated to the concepts or ideas being tested is called ______________. Test bias
According to Salkind, what are the five considerations that should be taken into account when trying to create fair tests? should be fair and valid, should be open, should be used appropriately, evaluation of students and school should consist of multiple types of assessment conducted over time, alternative assessments should be used
Name two steps that Salkind listed as ways to help create unbiased tests: try to recognize your own biases and stereotypes, show the test to a member of a group you think the test might be biased against, ask for help, start the test over, take into account that test takers are different from one another in the way they learn
What cultural group did the Chitling Test of intelligence use as the basis of their test? the test used black-ghetto experiences as the basis for the test
True or false: The No Child Left Behind Law requires that public elementary schools provide military recruiters with contact information for every student in the school. True
Name 3 reasons why there is controversy surrounding the No Child Left Behind Law: all students to be tested, even those with dis and low English, scores are averaged to produce an indicator of sucess. only public schools expected to meet standards. never funded at levels proposed. no rewards for doing well. no operational definitions
What is the name of the law that ensures a fair, free and appropriate education for all students regardless of their level of handicap? IDEA – Individuals with disabilities act
True or false: At times it may be appropriate to ignore a subpoena for a client’s records or test data. False
True or False: A subpoena requires that the psychologist must disclose confidential information. False
What additional criteria must be met in order to disclose confidential information? Client has given consent, a judge has issued a mandate to release information,
True or False: The psychologist does not have the responsibility to maintain confidentiality or assert the psychotherapist-patient privilege. False, the psychologist must do so unless the client has waived the privilege or the court has ordered the psychologist to turn over the information.
Name two challenges assessors face when releasing a psychological test? a) inappropriate disclosure of a test can impair the validity of the test b) inappropriate disclosure of a test may threaten the value of the test as a measurement tool
How does a psychologist determine if they have received a valid demand for disclosure of sensitive test data and client records? consult a lawyer
Which of the following are grounds for opposing the release of a client’s records or test data? a) the therapist-client privilege, which recognizes that effective therapy requires the client’s need for privacy is met b) public release of test manuals may affect future test populations c) test publishers have an interest in protecting the information
Explain how using psychometric tests can influence sentencing after a trial (give an example) verdict can change depending on the IQ age of the def. Trial of Alberto Flores, who was not sentenced to death because it could be shown through test that his mental age was ca. 7 years.
What is test bias? The difference in test scores that can be attributed to variables that are related with a certain group membership. Test bias occurs when test scores vary across different groups due to factors that are unrelated to what the test is attempting to measure.
To reduce bias in your test, what four steps should you take? Be as aware of your own biases and make every effort to eliminate them Show it to someone to look over who belongs to a group you may have a bias against If you find a bias, start over and ask for help. make sure the format of the test is fair to all
The Difference-Difference Bias says that if two groups differ on a factor unrelated to the test, the test is biased. What is the problem with the Difference-Difference Bias? Differences MAY be the result of a bias, but not necessarily always, as the diff-diff bias states. May be result of real differences between groups.
How does the Clearly Model examine test bias? Give an example of how it can be applied. With a regression model. People with the same test scores should the same when related to an exterior criterion. the predictor value should be the same. The SAT scores of black and white students should predict success in college equally well.
What are the basic principles of fair testing? Assessments should be fair and valid, provide equal opportunity be open to the public be used appropriately Evaluation should consist of multiple types of assessment conducted over time Alternative assessments should be used
During the 60s and 70s black children scored approx 15 points lower on standardized intelligence tests when compared to white children. A. Name some possible reasons for these findings and b. explain how test bias could be responsible for these findings test bias, environmental factors (schooling, parenting etc), strong cultural components that did not measure intelligence per se but also knowledge or know-how predominant in the upbringing of the white children.
According to Cronbach, what is a test? ”a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more persons”
Because most lung cancer patients are chronic smokers, most chronic smokers get lung cancer. This assumption is an example of: Affirming the consequent
Which is NOT the most dependable source of information for the psychological history of a 7-year old child? The child
Fill in the blank: Using “_______” norms, many geriatric patients are classified as “brain damaged” and/or “demented”. adult
The error of diagnosing psychopathology based on ways of being that deviate from the masculine is due to: androcentric norms
Ability differences between genders have _______ in the past 3 decades. decreased
Why do women veterans with PTSD often get misdiagnosed with a personality disorder? -adherence to myths that women in the military are protected from traumatic experiences-low base-rate of women serving in the U.S. military-and/or subsequent failure of clinician to identify past service/experiences
A clinician’s reaction to his/her client that is influenced by the clinician’s gender beliefs is a form of: countertransference
Name 3 things you can do to promote an effective testing environment for children. Anything along the lines of making the room child-friendly or providing breaks. (e.g. providing child-size furniture, allowing for breaks, providing toys)
According to Gladwell in “None of the Above, what Race doesn’t tell us about IQ,” IQ doesn’t measure how smart we are, but instead measures how _______ we are. Modern
According to the Flynn effect, if norms on the WISC remained the same from 1970 on, the number of people diagnosed as mentally retarded on the basis of their IQ score would ____ over time. Decrease
Flynn believes that occupational success of Asian-Americans can be attributed MOSTLY to: Dedication to hard work and higher education
True or False: The IQ of a mixed race child is shown to be 8 points higher if they are born to a white mother and a black father, compared to if their mother was black and their father was white. True
This concept is defined as when there is a difference between cultural or gender groups on the probability of answering a question correctly. Content/Item bias
When the structure of a tests differs across cultures, this is called: Internal Structure/factorial bias
True or False? Hearing loss is the most prevalent sensory impairment in the United States. True
What is considered to be the most well-researched aspect of psychological testing for deaf and hearing-impaired people? intelligence testing
Fill in the blank : A(n) ___distribution of IQ scores may be present in deaf population bimodal
Please list one reason why the MMPI is inappropriate for the Deaf population: problems with reading level, use of idioms, inappropriateness of some of the questions
True or False? The majority of deaf people can lip read easily. False
Estimated conservatively, what percentage of deaf people who need services cannot obtain them? 85% - 98%
Personality assessment instruments for deaf people have Poor validity and poor reliability
According to the World Health Organization, ____ million people live with disabilities of various types. 600
True or False? IQ scores were lower when an American Sign Language interpreter was used vs. lip-reading. False
Title I of the American Disabilities Act: prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment
True or False? Hobson v. Hanson (1967) states that no single test administered by single person can make diagnosis among disabled, disadvantaged or minority culture True
The ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA) makes it clear that impairments that are episodic or in remission can still be considered a “disability” if they would substantially limit a major life activity when active. True
In a recent case, Brady v Wal-Mart, the Court of Appeals affirmed an award of $900,000 to a former pharm asst with cerebral palsy whose impairment obviously affected his gait and speech, but who never requested an accommodation. This decision shows that: If the disability is obvious, a duty to accommodate might exist even if the employee has not asked for an accommodation
Name two examples of accommodations listed on the American with Disabilities Act list of accommodations. Acquiring certain equipment, Adjusting exams, training materials or policies, Providing qualified interpreters, Reallocating nonessential job functions, Permitting part-time or modified work schedules, Reassigning employees to vacant, equivalent positions
As of January 1, 2009, the focus of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is directed to whether covered entities have complied with their obligations to reasonably accommodate disabled applicants and employees. True
The ADAAA explicitly__ the standard created by the SC in Wms, to be limited in a major life activity, an "individual must have an impairment that prevents or severely restricts him from doing activities that are of importance to most people's daily lives. Rejects
Language loss in their primary language is common when Limited English Proficient children focus on learning a second language. True
______ is defined as “the degree of control one has over the language in question.” Language proficiency
The practice of using interpreters during assessments should be avoided because of the risks for: Misclassifications and mislabelings
Because children from language minority backgrounds score ____ on non-verbal measures of intelligence than on cognitive measures that are verbally loaded, the use of nonverbal cognitive measures is _____. higher; recommended
What are two problems found in current practices used to identify cognitive abilities of Limited English Profession children? The use of English as the language of testing, The use of interpreters, The use of translated tests
The _____of a standardized measure is likely to change when significant modifications are made to administration procedures and assessment tasks. validity
ethnic and personal identity have some important differences as well as similarities. Which ONE of the following is an important way in which ethnic identity specifically distinguishes itself from personal identity? A given individual derives positive self-attitude from others
MEIM-R is a measure developed by the author of this article, Jean S. Phinney, and was designed to be used as a “generic” indicator of any given individual’s developing sense of their ethnic identity. What components are the MEIM-R based upon? A sense of attachment and belonging, A developmental concept of an achieved identity, Involvement in ethnic practices
Achievement Test Assess an individual’s level of knowledge in a particular domain.
Aptitude Test Measure an individual’s potential to succeed in an activity requiring a particular skill or set of skills.
Personality Test Assess an individual’s unique and stable set of characteristics, traits, or attitudes.
Ability Tests Assess one’s level of skill or competence in a wide variety of areas.
Vocational Tests Assess an individual’s interests and help classify those interests as they relate to jobs and careers.
Discuss the difference between an individual’s ethnicity and ethnic identity: Ethnicity is determined at birth because it is a phenotype passed down from the genotypes of a person’s parents. Ethnic identity, however, is a term that refers to a person’s relationship with their ethnicity.
Due to an increase in ethnic diversity, in the future we should anticipate increasing numbers of individual’s declaring themselves “other” on standard demographic questionnaires. True
What is a form of testing that presents test takers with new questions based on their previous test responses? Computer-adaptive testing
Disclosure laws requiring the public release of test information have decreased the cost of testing. False
The number of practicing psychologists who are “measurement illiterate” is on the rise. As a future practicing psychologist, which of the following ways might being “measurement illiterate” affect your practice: Inability to interpret tests scores of my clients or test subjects, Potential to add ad hoc items to a test that would invalidate the results, Spending money on a test that is wrong for the population I am trying to treat
Name at least two confounding variables that may invalidate of the Rorschach Test? The examinee knowing that holding hands to block out parts of the images would signify possible brain damage. Holding the cards at an unusual angle, prior exposure of the test would interrupt the validity of the test, Inter-rater reliability is low
Name two ethical considerations of the forensic neuropsychologist in reference to protecting testing tools and results. Testing materials should never be released to the public or to legal representatives, except in the event of a court order, Raw data should only be interpreted by trained professionals
An attempt to alter results of psychological or neuropsychological testing for the purpose of distorting an actual representation and assessment of the examinee is the definition of? Coaching
If the motivation for manipulating test results is internal, what disorder(s) could this be reflective of? Conversion Disorder or Factitious Disorder.
Iatrogenic effects refer to symptoms or conditions from which the patient is believed to be suffering. Explain the way or ways by which a medical professional may contribute to this effect? Conscious or unconscious suggestion
What are two motivations for malingering and/or coaching? People may receive financial benefit or evade formal duty or punishment.
What are the potential consequences of malingering? It incentivizes people to remain noncompliant with psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative services.
Why would tests measuring response latency be used to indicate malingering? Malingerers take a fraction more time to consider responses.
Is there a gold-standard for assessing malingering? No.
In what ways are factitious and somatoform disorders different? somatoform d/o will actually produce the presence of pain or discomfort while a factitious d/o does not yield sensations within the patient, instead the patient only seeks to present as ill, no actually be ill.
What is the catch-22 of educating people about malingering? If you warn people about potential malingering you create more sophisticated malingering.
What piece of data collected during a history intake would suggest malingering? The symptoms are not congruent with the complaints.
Name at least two ways that “fake-bad” coaching can be detected? When the client uses highly technical/clinical legal/psychological terminology, Validity indicators on the MMPI-2, Claimants requesting consultation with their attorneys before or during testing
Coaching is any attempt to alter the results of psychological or neuropsychological tests so that distorts the true cognitive emotional, or behavioural status pr hinders an accurate assessment of such attributes. What is the problem with this definition? There is no distinguishing between the ethical and unethical preparation of a client for examination.
Why may there be this conflict of interest between the obligation of the attorney and the neuropsychologist? the attorney’s responsibility to advocate for cl and to provide guidance as to how to present oneself to achieve the desired outcome. This may preclude the psychologist from making valid interpretations of the litigant’s behavioural and cognitive status.
What was the primary test used to measure the success of computer-based therapy for substance abusers according to the article New Hope for Substance Abuse Treatment by Rebecca Clay? Urinalysis
What therapeutic model was used in the computer-based treatment of substance abusers as mentioned in the article New Hope for Substance Abuse Treatment by Rebecca Clay? Exposure Therapy
True or False : A behavioral study must have test results that are significant and apply to the entire population in order to be published in the American Journal of Psychiatry False
True or False : In the articles Virtual Therapy & New Hope for Substance Abuse Treatment, an argument is made in favor of computer-based therapy because it is cost effective and easy to facilitate. True
In testing the results of a computer-based substance abuse treatment program, the length of time drug-free in individual participants would be a _______________________ level of measurement. Ratio
True/False: When interpreting test results for effectiveness of computer-based therapies, it is always safe to assume that participants had adequate computer skills True
True/False: The only goal of therapeutic assessment is to provide the clinician with information about the client. False
Name one reason that collaborative goal setting is important in therapeutic assessment. gives clients a sense of power, heightens their own curiosity and engagement in the process, reduces anxiety during and after an assessment, prepares them to undertake revisions in their views of themselves and sets the stage for therapeutic change.
True/False: According to Pope, psychological test feedback should be a dynamic, interactive process. True
APA ethical principles state that any reservations a psychologist has about the reliability and validity of an assessment result should be communicated to the client. True
Which of the following is not a reason why a testing process may require immediate intervention by the assessment specialist and/or immediate feedback to third parties. Client knows the assessment specialist from another setting
Which of the following is not a unifying commonality among therapeutic models of assessment? consulting with previous therapists about how to work best with a client
True/False: Therapeutic models of assessment grew directly out of the humanistic movement. True
What is a grossly over simplified definition of a meta-analytic study? A meta-analysis statistically combines the results of several studies that address a shared research hypotheses.
True or False: clinicians may believe that some brain scan should be part of a standard battery. After decades of testing, there is finally a standard general neuropsychological battery. False.
True or False: The path from idea to working implementation to reliable tool to standardized clinical application is straightforward. False
True or False: The future of neuroimaging lies in multi-method integration (a system that measures and records both hemodynamic and neural activity), as opposed to primarily fMRIs (which just measure hemodynamic). True
According to the required neuroimaging reading, what is the best way to measure or conceptualize mental illness? Through subjective experience and on the basis of self-report
True/False: It will handicap clinical psychologists to leave the technical aspects of neuroimaging to their colleagues, even if it may be unrealistic to expect clinicians to master this field. True
T or F: Unstructured interviews are generally more reliable and less biased than structured interviews. False
T or F: Respondents will reveal more sensitive information during a computer-administered survey than a human administered survey. True
A disadvantage of administering assessments using computers is: A question may be answered incorrectly without intent to do so
T or F: More diagnoses are made by clinician-administered unstructured assessments than by computer administered assessments. False
Which of these is NOT a concern of internet testing? Cost effectiveness
T or F: Appropriate psychological assessment can be done on the internet without a psychologist’s interpretation. False
T or F: Internet testing is valuable to people who live in rural settings. True
T or F: An ethical concern of Internet testing is that test takers may not read instructions or disclaimers. True
Define halo effect. a general impression of something that creates bias and further subjectivity when looking at similar things (grading projects, for example).
What is the salient impression model? (Explain briefly) salient characteristics of the performance influence another performance dimension being rated.
What is the inadequate discrimination model? Explain briefly. where one rating of a performance can influence other ratings in different areas of that performance.
What can initially lessen total burden of using an electronic diary (ED) over time? Explain briefly. Practice effects can temporarily speed up recording time and ease recorders burden. Short intervals of ED recording followed by intervals without monitoring can also ease burden.
Which one of the following is not a found benefit of using an electronic diary (ED): Decrease subjectivity in the ED user’s responses
Finn states in the article, “How Psychological Assessment Taught me Compassion and Firmness” (2005), that one of the most challenging and exciting parts of being an assessor is being ________. Empathic
How does the Finn define empathy in his article “How psychological assessment taught me compassion and firmness” (2005)? The ability to put ourselves in our client’s shoes.
What two things has psychological assessment taught Finn (2005)? Compassion and Firmness
Halo errors may also lead raters who deal with multiple pieces of work from the same person to ¬¬-______changes in performance over time (Dennis 2007). Underestimate
The generality of halo bias remains __________ despite its potential importance in a range of settings (Dennis 2007) Uncertain
True or False: “One of the difficulties of studying halo effects in many contexts is the separation of halo bias from true correlations between the qualities being rated.” (Dennis 2007) true
the degree to which test results are accurate in forecasting some future outcome predictive validity
the degree to which test results provide a basis for accurately assessing some other current performance or condition concurrent validity
the degree to which a test adequately or accurately represents the wider category of which it is a subset content validity
the degree to which a test accurately indicates the presence of a presumed characteristic that is described by some theoretical or conceptual framework construct validity
Ethnic identity research has surveyed diverse ethnic and racial groups, while racial identity research has largely focused on African-American and Caucasian populations. True
Created by: turnfam3
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