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68wm6 p2 Can Rep Sys

Cancer of the Reproductive System

What cultures have a higher incidence of cervical cancer? *Hispanic American *African American *Native American
What is Diethylstilbestrol (DES)? A cancer causing synthetic estrogen
Risk factors for Cervical cancer *Herpes  *Human papillomavirus *Sexual activity at early age with multiple partners *Frequent sexual activity *Presence of genital warts (condyloma)
Types of cervical cancer *Dysplasia *Carcinoma in situ (CIS) Carcinoma in situ is an early-stage tumor *Invasive carcinoma
S/Sx of cervical cancer *Postcoital bleeding *Leukorrhea *Feeling of pressure on the bladder or bowel *Spotting between periods *Pain radiating to lower extremities
What is the prognosis of cervical cancer? Good if treated in the early stages
What is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive system? Endometrial Cancer
Who is endometrial cancer the most common in? More common in postmenopausal women
What increases the risk of endometrial cancer? High-level estrogen
What is the most common and earliest symptom of endometrial cancer? Bleeding
S/Sx of endometrial cancer *Bleeding *Pain - usually a late symptom *Watery malodorous vaginal discharge. *Fever, bowel and bladder dysfunctions are a late sign
What is the primary Tx of endometrial cancer? Hysterectomy
What is the second most common GYN cancer and the most common cause of gynecological death in the United States? Ovarian cancer
S/Sx of ovarian cancer *No pain (early) *Pain *Gastrointestinal symptoms *Menstrual irregularities *Pressure on the bladder/frequency /urgency *Ascites (late) *Weight loss/gain
An increase of what is suggestive of enlargement of the ovarian tumor? CA 125
What is the 5 year survival rate of stage I ovarian tumors? 60% - 70%
What is the 5 year survival rate of stage II ovarian tumors 0% - 40%
What is the breast cancer occurence in males? 1 out of 100
What is the breast cancer occurence in females? 1 out of 8
Risk factors for breast cancer *Age over 50 *Family History *Genetics *Chronic alcohol use *Ethnicity (North American or Northern European decent) *Nulliparity *Having children after age 35 *Obesity
Where does breast cancer occur the most often? In the upper/outer quadrants of the breast
S/Sx of malignant neoplasms *Skin reddened or dark *Puckering or dempling (skin appearance of orange-peel) of tissue *Nipple discharge or skin retraction *Peeling or flaking of the nipple *Axillary tenderness
What is the most important prognosticator of breast cancer? Positive/Negative axillary lymph node involvement
What is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women 15 to 54 years of age? Breast cancer
When should monthly BSE's begin? At age 20
When should CBEs be conducted? CBE’s every 3 years between ages 20-40 CBE’s and every year after age 40
What are the genetic markers for breast cancer? BRCA1 & BRCA2
Which diagnostic test is used to confirm a diagnosis of breast cancer? Biopsies
What is stage I breast cancer? < 2 cm, no regional or distant spread
What is stage II breast cancer? > 2 cm or < 5 cm with or without moveable axillary nodes, but no metastasis
What is stage III breast cancer? up to 5 cm with regional spread or > 5 cm without regional spread or metastasis
What is stage IV breast cancer? tumor of any size, with or without regional spread, but distant metastasis
What are removed in a modified radical masectomy? Breast tissue, nipple, and lymph nodes are removed, but muscles are left intact.
How many JP drains may a PT who received a masectomy have? The patient may have as many as 4 J-P drains, 2 at the breast site and 2 at the donor site
What is the second most common malignant cancer in men 25 to 35 years of age? Cancer of the testis
Who are the chances of having cancer of the testis higher in? Men with cryptorchidism
What is seminoma? Cancer of the testis
S/Sx of cancer of the testis *Enlarged scrotum *Firm, painless, smooth mass *Patient may speak of a feeling of heaviness
When should males begin TSE's? Monthly beginning at 15 years of age
What are the risk factors of cancer of the penis? *Uncircumcised *Poor hygiene *Hx of STD
Who does penis cancer generally occur in? men over 50 years of age
Created by: Shanejqb