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bone info

characteristics of bones

Disease of bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. osteoporosis
What disease of the bones are most inclined in white women and Asian women? osteoporosis
• Adequate intake of calcium and phosphorus • Vitamins – Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Vitamin D factors affecting growth and development
collagen vitamin c
stimulates the activity of the osteoblasts vitamin a
important for absorption of calcium into the blood vitamin d
four zones of epiphyseal plate Zone of Resting (Reserve) Cartilage, Zone of Proliferating Cartilage, Zone of Hypertrophy, Zone of Calcification, and Zone of Bone Deposition.
which side of the epiphyseal plate is bone added the diaphysis side
chondrocyte cells hook the epiphysis to the epiphyseal plate (anchoring cells) Zone of Resting (Reserve) Cartilage
cells are actively dividing and “stack up” Zone of Proliferating Cartilage
cells become larger and burst. This changes the pH. Zone of Hypertrophy
following burst the cells die and leave a hollowed out channel (Haversian/Central canal) where cells were. Calcification begins. Zone of Calcification
Osteoblasts start to lay rings of bone matrix around canal – lamellae formation. Zone of Bone Deposition
Growth in the bone occurs in the ? (area between epiphysis and diaphysis) epiphyseal plate
the epiphyseal plate remains open until? the bone is fully grown
functions of our skeleton • Support • Mineral Storage • Triglyceride/Fat Storage • Hemopoiesis – Blood Cell Production • Protection • Movement
– Covers the bone (except the articulating surfaces) Periosteum
classification of bones long bones, short bones, sesamoid bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and wormian/sutural bones
Long and Skinny Bones – Most of the bones in arms and legs long bones
Cube Shaped Bones/ ex. tarsal short bones
Flat, Round Bone sesamoid bone
Flat Bones/Ex. frontal bone Flat Bones
Irregularly Shaped Bones/ex. vertebrae irregular bones
– These are Bone Stem Cells – ONLY Bone Cells that can divide; will form • Osteoblast • Osteoprogenitor Osteoprogenitor (bone tissue cell types)
bone tissue cell types osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast, and osteoprogenitor
Osteoblast cells lay down collagen fiber bundles bone matrix
Calcium phosphate salts CaPO4- adhere to collagen fibers – Salts are available in your diet – Calcium phosphate salts give bone its hardness bone matrix
Collagen fibers make bone slightly flexible bone matrix
types of bone tissue spongy and compact bone
is found as the outer layer of bone – deep to the periosteum Compact Bone
lies beneath the hard bone – within the spongy bone is where the red and yellow bone marrow is made. Spongy Bone
Made of units called OSTEONS compact bone
In the middle of each pillar is an opening called a Central or Haversian canal compact bone
Surrounding each canal are rings of bone tissue called lamellae compact bone
A major blood vessel, Volkmann’s canal extends horizontally across bone and up each central canal compact bone
Blood spills out and travels through canaliculi (canals) finding its way to the lacunae (little lakes) and to the osteocytes compact bone
Spicules form a lattice-like arrangement called trabeculae spongy bone
Less Dense – blood vessels flow through it spongy bone
Red and yellow bone marrow is produced within the? spongy bone
• Very Compact • Very, very Strong • Very Hard – Gives the bone its “hardness” • Found on the outside of the bone • Used to protect inner bone • If whole bone were hard, it would be too heavy • Made up of units called osteons characteristics of compact bone
• ActuallyHard–Looks like a sponge • Not as strong as Compact Bone • Give the bone its lightness • Found on the inside of the bone • Trabeculae characteristics of spongy bone
Bones form inside a membrane Bone formations are usually fully grown by the age of two years Intramembraneous Ossification
– MESODERM cells within a membrane differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells – Osteoprogenitor cells divide into osteoblast cells which lay down collagen fibers & matrix Intramembraneous Ossification
– Calcium salts adhere to the collagen fibers forming matrix (calcification) – Osteoblasts become stranded in hard matrix, mature into osteocytes Intramembraneous Ossification
– Osteocytes form hard bone (spongy bone inside) – Original membrane becomes periosteum Intramembraneous Ossification
Bones start as cartilage and turn into bones – Mesoderm cells crowd together in shape of bone (hyaline cartilage) – Membrane forms – perichondrium Endochondral Ossification
– Cartilage model grows as perichondrium produces chondrocytes • Cartilage model grows in length – interstitial growth • Cartilage model grows in width – appositional growth Endochondral Ossification
Perichondrium produces osteoblasts • They deposit a thin collar of bone, bony collar NOW the membrane (the former perichondrium) becomes the periosteum Endochondral Ossification
– In the center of the bone, some chondrocyte cells begin to hypertrophy (grow) & will burst. When the chondrocytes burst, they spill their contents inside the cartilage model. This spill alters the pH in the cartilage model. (primary ossification center) Endochondral Ossification
A nutrient artery punctures into the side of the bone and brings in nutrition creating a primary marrow cavity Endochondral Ossification
The osteoprogenitor cells are activated, they divide into osteoblast cells which lay down matrix and eventually the cells become mature osteocytes Endochondral Ossification
As hypertrophy continues along the diaphysis it eventually reaches the epiphyses and a second ossification center and marrow cavity is formed Endochondral ossification
Created by: a.quimbaya1