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soc real world ch 7

Sociology The Real World Stein Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
__________ argue that deviance serves a social function by clarifying moral boundaries and promoting social cohesion. Functionalists
____________ believe that a society's inequalities are reproduced in its definitions of deviance, so that less powerful group are more likely to be deemed deviant and criminalized. Conflict theorists
____ argues that the tension or strain between socially approved goals and an indiv. ability to meet those goals through socially approved means leads to devnc as indiv. reject either the goals (achieving success), the means (hard work, educ), or both. Merton's structural strain theory
______________ theories of deviance focus on how interactions shape definitions and meaning of deviance and influence those who engage in deviant behavior. Symbolic Interactionist
____________theory states that we learn to be deviant through our associations with deviant peers. Differential association
Police stats compiled by FBI divided into violent crime and property crimes UCR (uniform crime report) Data sent out by fbi
_________ theory claims that deviance is a consequence of external judgments, or labels, which both modify the individual's self-concept and change the way others respond to the labeled person. Labeling
In structural strain theory, ________ accept the goals of the society and the means of achieving those goals Conformists
In the 1980's there was a increase in stats on the UCR due to ______ drugs
In structural strain theory, ____________ accept the goals of the society, but they look for new, or innovative ways of achieving those goals Innovators
In structural strain theory, ___________ aren’t interested in the goals of the society but they do accept the means of achieving those goals Ritualists
UCR relies on _____ which leads to inaccurate data reported crimes
In structural strain theory, ____________ don’t accept the goals of the society or the means of achieving those goals Retreatists
In structural strain theory, _________ don’t accept the goals of the society or the means of achieving those goals, so they create their own goals using new means Rebels
The criminal justice system is made up of ______ ______ and ______ and is described as a ______ Police courts prison Funnel
Sometimes stigmatized individuals will try to _____ as if they are part of the mainstream. pass
According to structural strain theory, which group of people would be most likely to renounce the culture’s goals and means entirely and live outside of conventional norms altogether? Retreatists
A professional gambler who makes $250,000 per year would likely be considered what, according to structural strain theory? An innovator
Eddie’s family moved to new city. He finds new friends, but they’re “up to something” all of the kids dyed their hair green, and so did Eddie. etc Which sociologist would be interested in studying this sit.? Merton,Sutherland,Becker, Goffman Jack Katz Edwin Sutherland
Body modification used to be used as a way to mark someone in society with shame. Now, however, body modification is now generally considered a voluntary mark of body decoration. What does this tell us about society? What is considered “deviant” changes over time.
According to Merton’s structural strain theory, an individual who deals drugs in order to get rich would be called a(n): b. innovator
A student, continually told that he is stupid and will never amount to anything, who eventually drops out of school, is an example of: c. self-fulfilling prophecy
The death penalty. capital punishment
A violation of a norm that has been codified into law. crime
A collection of social institutions such as legislatures, police, courts, and prisons, which create and enforce laws. criminal justice system
The use of electronic media (web pages, social networking sites, e-mail, instant messengers, and cell phones) to tease, harass, threaten, or humiliate someone. cyberbullying
The tendency of individuals to age out of crime over the life course. desistance
An approach to punishment that relies on the threat of harsh penalties to discourage people from committing crimes. deterrence
A behavior, trait, belief, or other characteristic that violates a norm and causes a negative reaction. deviance
Process by which an individual self-identifies as deviant and initiates his or her own labeling process. deviance avowal
Edwin Sutherland's hypothesis that we learn to be deviant through our associations with deviant peers. differential association theory
Among stigmatized individuals, an orientation away from mainstream society and toward new standards that value their group identity. in-group orientation
An approach to punishment that seeks to protect society from criminals by imprisoning or executing them. incapacitation
Individuals who accept society's approved goals, but not society's approved means to achieve them. innovators
Howard Becker's idea that deviance is a consequence of external judgments, or labels, which modify the individual's self-concept and change the way others respond to the labeled person. labeling theory
According to Howard Becker, those labeled deviant and subsequently segregated from "normal" society. outsiders
Presenting yourself as a member of a different racial or ethnic group than the one you were born into. passing
Actions considered deviant within a given context, but which are later reinterpreted as appropriate or even heroic. ie civil rights positive deviance
In labeling theory, the act or attitude that causes one to be labeled deviant. primary deviation
Crimes that do not involve violence, including burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. property crime
Individuals who reject society's approved goals and means and instead create and work toward their own (sometimes revolutionary) goals using new means. rebels
An approach to punishment that attempts to reform criminals as part of their penalty. rehabilitation
Individuals who reject both society's approved goals and the means by which to achieve them. retreatists
An approach to punishment that emphasizes retaliation or revenge for the crime as the appropriate goal. retribution
Individuals who have given up hope of achieving society's approved goals, but still operate according to society's approved means. ritualists
In labeling theory, the deviant identity or career that develops as a result of being labeled deviant. secondary deviation
An inaccurate statement or belief that, by altering the situation, becomes accurate; a prediction that causes itself to come true. self-fulfilling prophecy
Erving Goffman's term for any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group's identity, and which may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interaction. stigma
Robert King Merton's argument that, in an unequal society, the tension or strain between socially approved goals and an individual's ability to meet those goals through socially approved means will lead to deviance as individuals reject either the goals o structural strain theory
In labeling theory, the rejection or transformation of the stigma of a deviant identity. tertiary deviation
An official measure of crime in the United States, produced by the FBI's official tabulation of every crime reported by over 17,000 law enforcement agencies. Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
Crimes in which violence is either the objective or the means to an end, including murder, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery. violent crime
Crime committed by a high-status individual in the course of her or his occupation. white-collar crime
Created by: hkrawietz