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October 24, 2011

A&P Study Guide Chapter 4 & 5

Psoriasis a chronic noncontagious dermatitis that is characterised by a reddish, raised patches of skin that are covered with whitish scales. may be triggered by stress or poor health
Acne a chronic skin disorder characterized by plugged hair follicles that ofter form pimples due to infection by certain bacteria
Athletes foot a slightly contagious infection that is caused by a fungus growing on the skin. produces reddish flaky and itchy patched of skin. forms between and under toes where moisture persist
Boils are acute, painful Staphylocaccus infections of hair follicles and their sebacous flands as well as surrounding dermis is subcutaneous tissue.
Fever blisters or cold sores, are clusters of fluidfilled vesicles that occur on the lips or oral membranes. They ae causes by Herpes simplex virus 1 transmitted by oral or respiratory exposure
Impetigo highly contagious skin infection caused by bacteria. mostly in children and is characterized by fluid-filled pustules that rupture, forming a yellow crust over the infected area
Warts small sin tumors that have a normal skin color. They are caused by virus infection that stimulates excessive growth of epithelial cells
Alopecia is the loss of hair. common in males inherited. noninherited causes; poor nutrition, sensitivity to drugs, and eczema
Bed sores result in chronic deficency of blood cirulation in the dermis and subcutaneous layers
Blisters fluid filled pockets, form when an abrasion, burn, or injury causes the epidermis to seperate from the underlying dermis
Corns and callus are thicken areas of the skin that result from chronic pressure. Clluses are larger and are often formed in the parms of the hands or the balls of the feet. Corns are smaller and usually form on the upper surface of the toes
Cancer result in excessive cell division by cells that have lost control of the process
Dandruff the excess shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp as a result of excessive cell production.
Eczema is an inflammation producing redness, itching, scaling and sometimes cracking of the skin.
Hives are red, itchy bumps or wheals that usually result from an allergic reation to certain foods, drugs, or pollen
Moles are slow skin tumors that are usually brown or black in color
Tissue that is tighly packed, without blood vessels, functions in absorption and secretion, lines body cavities and covers organs and attachment is by a non-cellular basement membrane. Epithelial Tissue
What tissue provides support for body organs? Connective Tissue
What tissue contracts, enabling movement of the body and body parts? Muscle Tissue
True or False: The connective tissue that forms the supporting framework for internal organs is fibrous connective tissue. False
True or False: The intracellular substance in connective tissue is called the matrix and is used to classify connective tissue and may contain protein fibers. True
What type of tissue is abudant in the lungs, respiratory tract and arteries? Elastic connective tissue
What connective tissue is specialized for "fat" storage? Adipose Tissue
What is the function of collagenous fibers? Provide strength, nonelasticity & fexibility. Is formed of collagen.
Fibrous connective tissue forms _________ and ____________. Tendons and ligaments.
What substance in th epidermis protects the body from ultraviolet radiation? Melanin
What are the three pigments that determine skin color? Hemoglobin (red pigment in red blood vessles), Carotene (Yellowish pigment found in plants and egg yolks) and Melanin (brownish pigment formed by melanocytes that is found in the deeper layers of the epidermis).
What is the function of the stratum basale layer? Stem cells which continuously produce new epidermal cells by mitotic cell division.
The skin is attached to underlying muscles by what layer? Hypodermis
What layer of skin lacks blood vessels? Epidermis
Layer of skin that contains both loose connective tissue and adipose tissue and is the site for subcutaneous injections ________; also known as the ___________ or ____________. Hypodermis Subcutaneous layer Superficial fascia
What is the brown-black pigment of the epidermis called and what is it's purpose of function? Melanin...it protects the body from harmfull ultraviolet radiation that is present in sunlight.
Daily exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet radiation in light skinned individuals results in an increase in the production of what? Melanin
What are the two types of sweat glands? Describe them. Where are they located? Apocrine - have a duct that empties the secretions into hair follicles, axilliary and genital regions. Become active around puberty. Eccrine _ most numerous sweat glands occure all over the body. Produce a clear watery perspiration lacking protein.
Healthy nails appear pink but will appear bluish when an individual is suffering from what? Poor circulation (severe anemia or oxygen deficiency.
Insulation against environmental temperatures greater or lesser than body temperature is provided by what tissue? Adipose
Normal body temperature is ________F or ________C? 98.6 or 37
When body temperature falls below normal, what happens to blood flow to the skin? The blood flow reduces which reduces heat loss.
The production and evaporation of perspiration increases or decreases body temperature? decreases
Bedsores result from what? No blood circulation to that part of the skin.
A burn destroys the epidermis and dermis is what type of burn? second degree
Define keratin. What is the function of keratin? It is a waterproofing protein that is resistant to abrasion. The primary function of keratin is protection (nails and hair).
In what layer of the skin are the sesory receptors located? Dermis
List and describe the functions of hair? Scalp hair protects the scalp from excessive heat loss and mechanical injury. Basically protection.
Describe what happens to aging skin. Break down of collagen & elastic fibers causes wrinkles, a decrease in fat makes a person sensitive to temp change, a decrease in sebum makes skin dry, decrease of melanin produces gray hair and ther is a decrease in hair replacement.
The most serious type of skin caner is _______. What is the most common cause of this type of cancer? Carcinomas the most common cause is excessive exposure to sunlight.
Define Stratified Epithelium. Where is it located and what is its function? More than one layer of cells. Two types of stratified epithelium tissue, squamous: multi layers of flat cells. located in outter portion of the skin and is for protection. Transitional: multi layers of oval cells that flatten when tissue is stretched.
Define Simple Epithelium. Where is it located and what is it's function? Single layer of cells that may be flat, cube like or coumn like in shape. Located where diffusion, secretion or filtration occur in the body. Function is protection, absorption, filtration and secretion.
Define Pseudostratified Epithelium. Where is it located and what is it's function? Single layer of ciliated coumn like cells that apear as multiple layers. Lines the upper air passages. Sweeps away mucus and foreign paticles produces secretions and it protects.
Define Loose Connective Tissue. What is it's location and function? Matrix with loose arrangement of collagenous & elastic fibers in a semi fluid ground substance. Attaches skin to underlying muscles and foms supporting framework for tissues.
Define Fibrous Connectie Tissue. What is it's location and function? Matrix contains densely packed collagenous fibers; fiberlasts arranged in rows. It covers skelatal muscles; forms tnedons that binds muscles to bones and ligaments binding bones to bones.
Define Adipose Tissue. What is it's location and function? Closely packed fat cells. It forms procteive cushion around organs. It insulates the body and is for energy storage.
Define Elastic Connective Tissue. What is it's location and function? Matrix with many elastic fibers, scattered fibroblasts. It is located in the walls of blood vessels, air passages and lungs. Allows expansion & contraction of tissue, provides flexibility.
Define Arrector pili muscles. Each muscle is formed of smooth muscle fibers when person is frightened or cold the muscles contract and produce goose bumps.
Define Sebum. Oily secretion that helps keep skin pliable and soft.
Define Cerumen. Earwax in the ear canal.
Describe Sebaceous Glands. Where are the located and what is their function. Oil producing glands that empty their secretions into hair follicles. They are located in the skin and help keep the hair and skin pliable and soft.
Define Cercuminous Glands. Where are they located and what are their function. Modified sweat glands that produce a waxy secretion called cerumen. Are located in the external auditory canal (ear canal). Helps keep foreign particles and insects out of the canal.
Define Sudoriferous Glands. Where are they located and what are their function. They are sweat glands. They are located all over the body in the dermis. Their function is to regulate body temperature.
Which type of cartilage is most abundant in the body? Hyline
Blood is specialized connective tissue with what type of matrix? Liquid
What connective tissue is characterized by hard, rigid matrix that is formed from calcium salts Bone
What level is the epidermis______ ______ _____ thinner outter layer
the epidermis is composed of what type of epithelium? stratified squamous epithelium
Nutrience are provided to the epidermal from blood vessels in what layer of the skin? Dermis
what is the function of the hypodermis? It provides insolation and fat storage, attached skin to underlying organs
Created by: bjbert