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Endocrine System

glands that secret through a series of ducts exocrine
ductless glands that secrete directly into the bloodstream endocrine
body systems that regulate homeostasis endocrine and nervous
chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to a target organ hormones
processes regulated by hormones metabolism, growth, development, reproduction
decrease in function in response to stimuli negative feedback
"master gland" pituitary (hypophysis)
located in the cranial cavity in a small saddle like depression in the sphenoid bone pituitary
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary
neurohypophysis posterior pituitary
produces the hormones released by the posterior pituitary hypothalamus
causes the relase of posterior pituitary hormones with nerve impulses hypothalamus
only non tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary prolactin
causes the mammary glands to produce milk prolactin
promotes the release of milk and stimulates uterine contractions oxytocin
hormones of the posterior pituitary ocytocin and ADH
GH receptor sites are primarily located in the bones
ACTH receptor sites are primarily located in the adrenal cortex
TSH receptor sites are pprimarily located in the thyroid
FSH and LH receptor sites are primarily located in the testes/ovaries
MSH receptor sites are primarily located in the skin
PRL receptor sites are primarily located in the mammary glands
ADH receptor sites are primarily located in the renal tubules
Oxytocin receptor sites are primarily located in the uterus and mammary glands
also called vasopressin ADH
causes the kidneys to conserve water by decreasing the amount of urine produced ADH
causes constriction of the arterioles in the body resulting in increased blood pressure ADH
butterfly shaped gland with one lobe lying on either side of the trachea thyroid
connects the two lobes of the thyroid isthmus
hormones of the thyroid thyroxine(T4), triiodothyronine(T3), calcitonin
adequate oral intake of iodine is necessary for the formation of these hormones thyroid hormones
regulate growth and development, metabolism, and nervous system activity T3, T4
anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the relase of thyroid ormones TSH
decreases blood calcium by causing calcium to be stored in the bones calcitonin
increases the calcium concentration in the blood and regulates blood phosphorus levels PTH (parathyroid hormone)
4 glands located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland parathyroid glands
muscle spasms tetany
low levels of this electrolyte result in excitement of nerve cells causing muscle stimulation and tetany calcium
high levels of this electrolyte cause impairment of the heart's ability to function calcium
increases the reabsorbtion of calcium and magnesium from the renal tubules and accelerates the elimination of phosphorus in the urine PTH
small, yellow masses that lie atop the kidneys adrenal glands
outer section of the adrenal glands cortex
small inner section of the adrenal gland medulla
part of the adrenal gland that secretes steriods cortex
three types of steroids mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, sex hormones
regulates sodium and potassium levels by affecting the renal tubules aldosterone
decreases the level of potassium and increases the level of sodium in the blood aldosterone
sodium retention causes retention of this water
steroids that are primarily involved in water and electrolyte balance and indirectly manage blood pressure mineralocorticoids
steroids that provide extra energy reserve during times of stress and have antiinflammatory properties glucocorticoids
male hormones androgens
female hormones estrogens
hormones of the adrenal medulla epinephrine and norepinephrine
another name for epinephrine adrenaline
increase heart rate and blood pressure, constrict blood vessels, and relase glucose reserves from the liver for systemic "fight or flight" response epinephrine and norepinephrine
elongated gland that lies posterior to the stomach pancreas
secreted by the beta cells of the islets of langerhans insulin
secreted in response to increased blood glucose insulin
secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of langerhans glucagon
secreted in response to decreased blood glucose levels glucagon
hormones produced by the ovaries estrogen and progesterone
temporary endocrine gland that forms and functions during pregnancy placenta
hormone produced by the testes testosterone
lies in the upper thorax, posterior to the sternum thymus
hormone produced by the thymus thymosin
hormone that plays an active role in the immune system thymosin
"programs" T lyphocytes thymus
small, cone shaped gland located in the roof of the third ventricle of the brain pineal
hormone of the pineal gland melatonin
may inhibit gonadotropic hormones melatonin
prevents sexual maturation of childs body until adulthood melatonin
thought to induce sleep, may affect mood, and has an impact on menstrual cycles melatonin
overproduction of GH in an adult Acromegaly
in acromegaly, any growth that occurs before diagnosis and treatment is irreversible
age of onset of acromegaly is usually 3rd or fourth decade of life
causes enlargement of lower jaw, nose, lips, tongue, hands, feet, heart, liver, spleen and speech difficulties, lowered voice, muscle weakness, joint pain and stiffness, impotence, amenorrhea acromegaly
if acromegaly is caused by a tumor, it can also cause severe headaches and eventual blindness
how is acromegaly treated surgery, radiation, dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogs
overproduction of GH in a child before the closure of epiphyses gigantism
causes of gigantism idiopathic, tumor, or hypothalamus dysfunction
caused by GH deficiency Dwarfism
definitive diagnosis of dwarfism is made by decreased plasma GH
treatment of dwarfism GH replacement, tumor removal
if dwarfism is caused by a tumor, additional manifestations include headache, visual disturbances, behavioral changes
caused by a deficiency of ADH diabetes insipidus
causes of secondary diabetes insipidus head injury, tumor, aneurysm, infarct, infection (encephalitis, meningitis)
primary manifestations are polyuria and polydipsia (5-20 L/day) diabetes insipidus
diabetes insipidus can cause this electrolyte imbalace hypernatremia
lab values indicative of diabetes insipidus urine specific gravity less than 1.003, serum sodium greater than 145 mEq/L, low urine ADH
treatment of diabetes insipidus includes ADH replacement, caffeine restriction
what type of fluids are used for fluid replacement in a patient with diabetes insipidus hypotonic
caused by hypersecretion of ADH SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH)
these medications have been known to cause SIADH general anesthesia, opiates, barbituates, thiazide diuretics, oral hypoglycemics, oxytocin
most common cause of SIADH malignancies
these cancers have been known to cause SIADH small cell lung cancer, hodgkins/non-hodgkins lymphoma, leukemia, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, duodenal cancer, pancreatic cancer
these pulmonary diseases have been known to cause SIADH COPD, tuberculosis, lung abcess, pneumonia
these nervous system issues have been known to cause SIADH Head trauma, CV thrombosis, cerebral atrophy, encephalitis, meningitis, guillain barre
these miscellaneous issues have been known to cause SIADH hypothyroidism, lupus erythmatosus, adrenal insufficiency
two primary manifestations of SIADH hyponatremia, water retention
lab results indicative of SIADH serum sodium <125 mEq/L
Early signs of SIADH weakness, muscle cramps, anorexia, nausea, headache, low urine output, MINIMAL edema
Late signs of SIADH lethargy, personality changes, seizures, decreased deep tendon reflexes
how often should neuro checks be performed in a patient with SIADH every 3-4 hours
how often should lung sounds be auscultated in a patient with SIADH? every 2-4 hours
also called graves disease, exopthalmic goiter, and thyrotoxicosis hyperthyroidism
results from overproduction of T3 and T4 hyperthyroidism
hyperthyroidism most commonly occurs in this population women 20-40 years old
manifestations include anterior neck edema, exopthalmose, inability to concentrate, memory loss, weight loss, increased appetite, increased pulse, increased blood pressure, increased temp, heat intolerance hyperthyroidism
lab results indicative of hyperthyroidism low TSH, high T3, T4, 35-95% on RAIU
this medication of the treatment of acute hyperthyroidism must be taken TID and has a faster onset of action propylthiouracil (PTU, Tapazole)
this medication for acute hyperthyroidism is preferred because it is taken only once per day even though it has a slower onset of action methimazole
the gold standard of care for hyperthyroid ablation therapy with radioactive iodine
signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia numbness/tingling in fingers/toes, carpopedal spasms, increased pulse, respirations, and blood pressure
a positive chvostek's sign is indicative of hypocalcemia
a positive trousseau's sign is indicative of hypocalcemia
emergency treatment of tetany calcium gluconate
thyroid storm can occur after this procedure subtotal thyroidectomy
s/s of thyroid storm nausea, vomiting, hypertension, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea
hypothyroidism occurs most frequently in this group women age 30-60
causes of hypothyroidism thyroid or pituitary dysfunction, sequelae of hyperthyroidism treatment
severe adult hypothyroid causing edema of hands, feet, face, and periorbital areas myxedema
congenital hypothyroidism cretinism
s/s of hypothyroidism hypothermia, weight gain, depression, paranoia, impaired memory, slowed thought processes, constipation
normal T3 65-195 ng/dL
normal T4 5-12 mcg/dL
normal FT4 1-3.5 ng/dL
normal TSH 0.3-5.4 mcg/mL
normal Calcium levels 9.0-10.5 mg/dL
high serum calcium can cause increased toxicity of this drug digitalis
treatment for hypothyroid lifelong replacement therapy
simple goiter can be treated with potassium iodide, increased iodine intake
surgery for treatment of goiter is for this puroose cosmetic
most common type of thyroid cancer papillary adenocarcinoma
usual manifestation of thyroid cancer firm, fixed, small rounded painless mass (nodule) on palpation of thyroid
these rare cancers of the thyroid have very low cure rates follicular, anaplastic
this type of thyroid cancer is usually "cold" on a RAIU test papillary
these thyroid lesions are "Hot" on a RAIU test benign adenocarcinomas and follucular adenocarcinomas
treatment of thyroid cancer thyroidectomy
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone hyperparathyroidism
causes of hyperparathyroidism adenoma, renal failure, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis
hyperparathyroidism is most common in this group women ages 30-70
manifestations of hyperparathyroidism hypercalcemia, skeletal pain, pain on weight bearing, pathologic freactures, kidney stones
treatment of hyperparathyroidism removal of one or more parathyroid glands with or without autotransplantation to a new site.
hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone hypoparathyroidism
manifestations of hypoparathyroidism hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, low urine phosphate
most common cause of hypoparathyroidism thyroidectomy
treatment of hypoparathyroidism calcium gluconate, calcium chloride (with vitamin D)
this should always be monitored during the administration of IV calcium EKG!!!!
also known as cushing's syndrome adrenal hyperfunction
causes of adrenal hyperfunction adrenal cortex tumor, ACTH overproduction, ACTH secreting tumors, prolonged corticosteriod use
etiology of adrenal hyperfunction feedback mechanism fails leading to overproduction of corticosteroids
common manifestations of cushing's syndrome moon face, buffalo hump, muscle wasting, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, protein in urine, calcium in urine, renal calculi, osteoporosis, infections
if surgery is not a option for cushings, what drug and be used mitotane
mitotane is toxic to what organ liver
if the cause of cushings is long term corticosteroid use than what is the treatment tapering of corticosteroids
also known as addison's disease adrenal hypofunction
causes of addison's disease adrenalectomy, pituitary hypofunction, steroid therapy, tuberculosis, infarct, fungal infection, aids, cancer
manifestations of addison's disease weakness, fatigue, nausea, anorexia salt craving, poor stress tolerance, hyperpigmentation, hypoglycemia, abnormal body temp,
lab values indicative of addison's disease high sodium, low postassium, low aldosterone, low cortisol
treatment for addison's disease corticosteroid replacement
Created by: ewoff85
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