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grcc bi 121 Exam 2

GRCC BI 121 exam 2 forbes integumentary system

Epithelial membranes part of the integumentary system
Serous, mucous, cutaneous Epithelial membranes
Lines cavities that DO NOT open to the outside; coverss organs Serous membranes
What type of membrande covers organs and provided examples Serous membranes line organs
exocrine glands Secretes products into ducts that open onto surfaces
Exocrine glands secrete into what type of surfaces? They secrete onto surfaces such as skin or lining of digestive tract.
endocrine glands Glands that secretes products into tissue fluid or blood.
How are exocrine glands classified? according to how glands secrete their products.
Mecrocrine is an endocrine gland. This releases fluid products by exocytosis (substances exit the cell)
Apocrine are another exocrine gland. This gland loses small portions of their grandular cell bodies during secretion;
Piece of cell containing secretions breaks from cell apocrine
Holocrine glands are endocrine glads. They release the entire cell that contains the product.
The whole cell containing a product is released. Holocrine
Function of serous membranes? Reduces friction via serous fluid production
releases serous fluid and lubricates the organs to prevent friction serous membranes
Mucous membranes Line cavities that DO open to outside
Oral and nasal cavities, urinary & digestive (mouth to anus)systems examples of mucous membranes
Digestive system mouth to anus....because of this it is open to the outside.
Mucous membranes function prevents desiccation, reduces friction, trap debris with mucus via goblet cells
Mucous membranes drying factor Prevents desiccation (anything from drying)
mucous membrane friction factor lubricates and prevents friction
mucous membranes debris factor trap debris with mucous via goblet cells.
cutaneous (skin) membrane interface between body and external environment.
Cutaneous function prevents desiccation, reduces abrasion, resists infection, sense environment, vitamin activation, waste elimination via sweating
Prevents dryness - desiccation cutanous and mucous membranes
reduces abrasion cutaneous function
resists infection, senses environment, vitamin activation and eliminates waste via sweating other cutaneous functions
Components of cutaneous membranes epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous
Cutaneous membrane: epidermis lack of vascularization, increase # of desmosomes, keratinized (cornified) surface
desmosomes protein fibers that bind cells together
Keratinze protein covering of dry,tough protective material that prevents water and other substances from escaping underlying tissues and blocks chemicals & toxins from entering into system.
Component of melanocytes Production of melanin to reduce UV damage
melanin lies in the bottom layer of the dermis
melanin leaves via Exocytosis and then enters (endocytosis) into the epidermal cells.
Melanoma a cancer of the melanocytes. Most deadly form of skin cancer.
Moles elevated clusters of melanocytes usually harboring viruses.
These have a high probability of turning into melanomas moles
Psoriasis normally epidermal cell production equals the amount of skin loss; however this condition, stratum basale cells divide 7x faster than normal.
Bed/sores, pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers These form when blood diffusion to integument is prevented or restricted
E.g. of bed sores someone laying on the same spot and not moving....decrease blood flow to that area leads to tissue breakdown.
Dermititis Inflammation of the dermis
contact dermitis exposure to allergen. e.g. poison ivy
poison ivy e.g. of contact dermitis
Irritant dermitis exposure to irritant, e.g. cosmetics, soapy water
rashes dermitis caused by pathogens
dermis characteristics Irregular dense connective tissue, smooth muscle fibers (cells), blood vessels, Glands, hair follicles
Dermis: irregular dense connective tissue characteristics collagen and elastic fibers; ground substance (gel-like)
Dermis: smooth muscle fibers (cells) e.g. hair, follicles, scrotum, and facial expression.
Scrotum and temp must be at constant 95 degrees to keep sperm alive, scrotum is outside of body (body is 98.6)
Blood vessels and hair follicles components of dermis
Dermis: glands e.g. sweat and sebaceous
cellulitis spreading inflammation of the dermis or hypodermis.
cellulitis cause bacteria such as streptococcus or staphlycoccus (MRSA)
Ringworm (tinea) dermal infection caused by a FUNGUS that results in exfoliation.
ringworm (tinea) Not a worm - but a fungus
Subcutaneous characteristics loose connective tissue, adipose, blood vessels, nerves
Mainly made up of adipose subcutaneous characteristics
subcutaneous: Loose connective tissue collagen and elastic fibers
accessory organs of the skin Hair follicles, sweat glands, sebacceous glands
Hair follicle function assessory organ of the skin that produces hair and releases sebum
Hair follicles component Root, papilla, shaft, arrector pilli
Haif follicles component: root portion of the hair embedded in skin
hair follicles component: papilla nutritive bud of connective tissue and vessels
hair follicles component: shaft portion of hair that exits follicle
hair follicles component: arrector pilli muscle smooth muscle that stands hair up
Arrector pilli function used for thermoregulation- stands up hair to prevent air flow.
blood vessels dry up and cause hair loss - no blood - can no longer supply/produce hair.
alopecia (hair loss) occurs as a result of fever, low estrogen levels, genes, meds, and autoimmune disorders.
Characteristics of malignant melanomas asymemetry, uneven borders, two or more shades, larger than 6 mm
Sebaceous Gland Holocrine glands
What secretes sebum (fatty oils and whole cells) Holocrine glands secretes this substance.
Sebaceous gland (holocrine gland) is associated with? follicle
Function of sebaceous (holocrine glands) reduces desiccation (reduces drying), water proofing, preserve hair.
largest sebaceous glands found where? Nipples during 3rd trimester
Why are there macrosize sebacous (holocrine glands)around the nipples There to prevent chapping in breast feeding.
Associated with hair follicles and solo on genitalia, mouth corners, nipples, etc Sebaceous glands (holocrine gland)
Excess sebum secretion causes what? results in acne due to plugged ducts.
Sweat glands Duct with coiled base
Function of sweat glands reduction of toxins, thermoregulations, etc.
Types of sweat glands eccrine, apocrine, ceruminous, mammary, salivary glands
Sweat gland (eccrine) Thermoregulation, waste elimination.
Sweat gland : Apocrine Wetting of skin and scent production especially during times of excitement. Open into follicles.
Sweat gland: Ceruminous Produces ear wax
Sweat gland: mammary Produce milke specialized type of apocrine glands (releasing cell fragments)
Sweat Gland: Salivary produces saliva digestion, modified sweat glands.
Nails function Defense, grip
As blood cells die- what happens to nail? fungus takes over.
Merocrine glands secrete secrete cytoplasm secretion only
apocrine glands secrete secretes cytoplasm of mammary cells and fragment cells
holocrine glands secrete secretes living cells that squeeze up cytoplasm and whole cells.
Thermoregulation by the skin Hypothermia and hyperthermia
Hypothermia Below normal body temp
Hyperthermia Above normal body temp
Temp reduction via radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation, vasodilation.
Temp reduction: radiation infrared radiation reduces core temp
Temp reduction: conduction Skin contact with solide objects.
Infrared heat rays escape from warmer surfaces to cooler surroundings radiation
Temp reduciton: convection Skin contact with air mass
Temp reduction: evaporation Evaporating sweat (eccrine glands)
temp reduction: vasodilation Plasma components of blood heats up and moves throughout blood system.
Warm blood rises to surface and released thru integumentary Temp reduction via vasodilation
Temp increases via vasoconstriction, shivering, conduction, convection
Temp increase: vasoconstriction Blood moves to surface leading to redness
Temp increases: shivering Muscular system
Temp increases: conduction Transferred through integument (body to body)
Temp increases: convection arrector pili- hair stands up to stop dead air space on the skin
What are factors affecting skin coloration Genes, Dark and light skin
Skin coloration: genes Number of melanocytes equal between races color funcitoin amount of melanin produced and size of granules.
skin coloration: Dark skin Large granules
Skin coloratin: Light skin Small granules.
vilitigo results in the death of melanocytes cause unknown but amy include autoimmunity or neuro toxins.
Albinism failure of melanocytes to produce melanin (an inborn error of metabolism)
Lentigos Age spots - does not lead to cancer
Age spots aka liver spots; are pigment spots produced by melanocytes with UV- damaged DNA. Melanocytes produce excess melanin and stimulate production of new melanocytes does not lead to cancer
freckles are localized concentration of normal melanocytes
factors affecting skin coloration: environmental UV exposure increase melanin production
Caucasions requires stimulus like UV to turn on melanin factors affecting skin coloration ; environmental
factors affecting skin coloration: physiology Increase oxygen increases redness; decrease oxygen increases blueness; increase billibur increase yellow skin, etc
factors affecting skin coloration: diet Eating plants containing carotene pigment
pumpkins, carrots and squash too much could lead to orange skin.
skin repair Damage occurs > clot forms > fibroblasts > secrete collogen fivers to bind margins > growth factos released to stimulate mitosis > phagocytes remove debris > regenerating cells push off scab.
Burns: First degree Affects epidermis only; reddened (erythema), edema and possible peeeling of epidermis
What could lead to basale cell due to mutated cells from what type of burn? first degree burn
Burns: second degree capillary drainage and blister formation and peeling. affects epidermis and dermis
Burns: Third degree Destruction of epidermis, dermis, and associated organs and hypodermis
Third degree caused by flame may lead to carbonization of skin.
Size of wound increases The chance of scarring increases due to collagen fibers formation.
Stretch marks are a result of scarring from? stretching of the integumentary.
Aging of skin: epidermis Maintains thickness, mitosis decreases, cells are larger and irregular in shape, keratin changes shape resulting in scaly skin "lentigos" appear
decreased mitosis = slower skin repair
Aging skin: dermis decrease fibers (resuling in thinner skin), sebum, hair melanin, follicles, nail blood
Sebum drys up aging skin leads to dry skin/dry hair
hair melanin gray hair is absense of pigment
nail blood supply and aging decreases lead to fungal toe.
Decrease number of nerve receptors can;t feel food on face
decrease number of lymphocytes aging dermis
decrease sweat glands and aging dry skin
vasomanipulation ability and aging decresed abilit to control diameter of blood vessels = inability to dissipate heat.
vitamin D and aging decreased ability to absorb Vit d
Subcutaneous and aging Decreased fat, decreased fibers
Decreased fat and fibers causes sagging skin and wrinkles
Created by: Wends1984