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Chapter 4, 5, and 6

Carbs, Fats, and Proteins (Nutrition and Diet)

Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for the human body
Carbohydrates the primary source of energy for the human body.
Carbohydrates are least expensive, most abundant, keep well, are easy to digest and grow easily in most climates.
Carbohydrates are composed of what chemical elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O).
The functions of carbohydrates are providing energy (major function), protein sparing action, normal fat metabolism, providing fiber in the diet.
Each gram of carbohydrate provides how many calories 4.
Ketones are produced if there are not enough carbohydrates to fulfill the energy requirement, an abnormally large amount of fat is metabolized to help meet it. During this emergency need for energy, fat oxidization in the cells is not complete and ketones are produced.
Ketoacidosis is a condition in which ketones collect in the blood; caused by insufficient glucose available for energy.
Fiber creates a soft, bulky stool that moves quickly through the large intestine
What is the only substantial source of carbohydrates milk
Rice is the basic food in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and my sections of the United States
Wheat and the various breads, pastas, and breakfast cereals made from it are basic to American and European diets
Enriched is when some of the nutrients are lost during processing and nutrients are added back to the product
What nutrients are usually added back to enriched products B vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and iron
Fortified is when a nutrient that has never been part of the grain is added to the product
Where are carbohydrates stored in the liver and muscles for use as needed (it is stored as glycogen)
What are the simplest form of carbohydrates monosaccharides
Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates, are sweet, require no digestion, and can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream from the small intestine
Glucose (aka dextrose) is the form of carbohydrate to which all other forms are converted for eventual metabolism and is found naturally in corn syrup and some fruits and vegetables
What utilizes only glucose as fuel red blood cells, the central nervous system and the brain (therefore, a continuous source is needed)
Fructose is found with glucose in many fruits and honey, is the sweetest of all the monosaccharides, and is also called levulose or fruit sugar
Galactose is a product of the digestion of milk and is not found naturally
Disaccharides must be changed to simple sugars by hydrolysis before they can be absorbed and include sucrose, maltose, and lactose
Sucrose is a double sugar or disaccharide; examples are granulated, powdered, and brown sugar
Maltose is a double sugar (disaccharide) occurring as a result of the digestion of grain
Lactose is the sugar in milk (disaccharide) that helps the body absorb calcium
Lactose intolerance is caused by insufficient lactase (the enzyme required for digestion of lactose
Examples of monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) are berries, grapes, sweet corn, corn syrup, ripe fruits, soft drinks, honey, and lactose
Functions of monosaccharides are glucose (furnish energy, prevent ketoacidosis and spare proteins), fructose and galactose (fruits and vegetables provide vitamins, minerals and fiber)
Deficiency symptoms common to monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides are fatigue and weight loss
Deficiency symptoms of cellulose are constipation, colon cancer, and diverticulosis
Examples of disaccharides are sucrose (sugar cane, sugar beets, sugar), maltose (digestion of starch), and lactose (milk)
Functions of disaccharides are sucrose, maltose and lactose (furnish energy, spare proteins, prevent ketoacidosis)
Examples of polysaccharides are starch (cereal grains and their products), dextrins (starch hydrolysis), glycogen (glucose stored in the liver and muscles), and cellulose (wheat bran, whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables)
Functions of polysaccharides are provide fiber
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates containing combinations of monosaccharides; examples include starch, dextrin, cellulose, and glycogen
Starch is a polysaccharide found in grains and vegetables
Glycogen is sometimes called animal starch because it is the storage form of glucose in the body
Glucagon is the hormone that helps the liver convert glycogen to glucose as needed for energy
Dietary fiber (aka roughage) is indigestible because it cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes
Cellulose is a primary source of dietary fiber
Cellulose has no energy value but is useful because it provides bulk for the stool
Humans cannot digest cellulose
Fiber is considered helpful to clients with diabetes mellitus because it lowers blood glucose levels
Fiber may prevent some colon cancers by moving waste materials through the colon faster than would normally be the case which reduces the colon’s exposure time to potential carcinogens
The optimal recommendation for fiber intake is 20 to 35 g/day
Digestion/absorption of monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and galactose) may be absorbed from the intestine directly into the bloodstream, are then carried to the liver, where fructose and galactose are changed to glucose, blood then carries glucose to the cells
Digestion/absorption of disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, and lactose) require being converted to the simple sugar glucose (by the enzymes sucrose, maltase, and lactace) before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream
Digestion/absorption of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) begins in the mouth (salivary amylase), then to the stomach where the food is mixed with gastric juices, the small intestine where the digestible carbohydrates are changed to simple sugars (pancreatic amylase), then they are absorbed into the bloodstream
Salivary amylase begins to change starch to dextrin in the mouth
Pancreatic amylase changes digestible carbohydrates to simple sugars
Water soluble fiber sources are fruit (apples, peaches, plums and prunes, and bananas), grains (oats and barley), and legumes (dried peas, beans and lentils)
Water insoluble fiber sources are all vegetables, fruit, whole grains, brown rice, wild rice, wheat bran, nuts, and seeds
What are all carbohydrates changed to before metabolism can take place in the cells the simple sugar glucose
What happens when more glucose is ingested than the body can either use immediately or store in the form of glycogen it is converted to fat and stored as adipose (fatty) tissue
The process of glucose metabolism is controlled mainly by the hormone insulin
Insulin is secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
Insulin helps maintain a normal glucose level of 70 to 100 mg/dl
When insulin is impaired or absent, the glucose level in the blood becomes excessively high and results in what condition hyperglycemia which is blood glucose more than 126 mg/dl and is usually a symptom os diabetes mellitus
When insulin is given for diabetes mellitus the diabetic client’s intake of carbohydrates must be carefully controlled to balance the prescribed dose of insulin
When blood glucose levels are unusually low (less than 70 mg/dl) the condition is called hypoglycemia
A mild deficiency of carbohydrates can result in weight loss and fatigue
A serious deficiency of carbohydrates can result in ketoacidosis
A person needs a minimum of how many carbohydrates each day 50 to 100 grams
The three main groups of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
Galactose is a product of the digestion of milk
The simple sugar to which all forms of carbohydrates are ultimately converted is glucose
A fibrous form of carbohydrate that cannot be digested is cellulose
Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles
Glucose, fructose, and galactose are monosaccharides
Before carbohydrates can be metabolized by the cells, they must be converted to glucose
The only form of carbohydrate that the brain uses for energy is glucose
Substances to which fatty acids are broken down ketones
Starch is the form in which glucose is stored in plants
Insoluble dietary fiber can decrease blood cholesterol
The enzyme in the mouth that begins the digestion of starch is salivary amylase
Cellulose is not digestible by humans
Carbohydrates should provide approximately half of the calories in the U.S. diet
Glucose metabolism is controlled mainly by the hormone insulin
Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids
Fats are greasy substances that are not soluble in water
Fats have how many calories 9
Fats provide a more concentrated source of energy than carbohydrates
Fats are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but with a substantially lower portion of oxygen
Functions of fat are function and structure of body tissues, necessary part of cell membranes, carriers for fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K), provide energy when one cannot eat, protect organs and bones from injury, serve as insulation from cold, provide a feeling of satiety
Fats are present in both animal and plant foods
Animal foods that provide the richest sources of fats are meats, whole, low fat and reduced fat milk, cream, butter, egg yolks, and fatty fish such as tuna and salmon
Plant foods containing the riches sources of fats are cooking oils, made from olives, sunflower, or sesame seeds or from corn, peanuts, or soybeans, margarine, nuts, avocados, coconut, and cocoa butter
Visible fats are butter, margarine, lard, and cooking oils
Invisible fats are those found in other foods such as meats, cream, whole milk, cheese, egg yolks, fried foods, pastries, avocados, and nuts
Triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols are all lipids found in food and the human body
95% of the lipids in the body are triglycerides
Triglycerides are composed of thre fatty acids attached to a framework of glycerol
Glycerol is derived from a water soluble carbohydrate
Fatty acids are organic compounds of carbon atoms to which hydrogen atoms are attached
Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are necessary fats that humans cannot synthesize; must be obtained thru the diet
The two families of essential fatty acids are omega 3 and omega 6
Nonessential fatty acids are omega 9 fatty acids because the body can manufacture a modest amount, provided the essential fatty acids are present
Saturated fats are fats whose carbon atoms contain all of the hydrogen atoms they can; considered a contributory factor in atherosclerosis
Examples of saturated fats are meat, poultry, egg yolks, whole milk, whole milk cheeses, cream, ice cream, and butter
What percent of saturated fats is recommended per day no more than 7% of total daily calories
Fats are classified as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated (depending on their hydrogen content)
Monounsaturated fats have one place among the carbon atoms of its fatty acids where there are fewer hydrogen atoms attached than in saturated fats
Examples of foods containing monounsaturated fats are olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, avocados, and cashew nuts
Research indicates what fats lower the amount of LDLs (low density lipoprotein) aka bad cholesterol monounsaturated fats, but this only occurs when they replace saturated fats in one’s diet
Monounsaturated fats have what effect on HDLs (high density lipoproteins) aka good cholesterol none
It is recommended that one consume what percent of total daily calories as monounsaturated fats 15
Polyunsaturated fats have two or more places among the carbon atoms of its fatty acids where there are fewer hydrogen atoms attached than in saturated fats
Omega 3 fatty acids have been reported to help lower the risk of heart disease
Fish is recommended because omega 3 fatty acids are found in fish oils
Omega 6 (linoleic acid) has what effect on cholesterol lowering
Polyunsaturated fats should not exceed what percent of total daily calories 8
Transfatty acids (TFAs) are produced when hydrogen atoms are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats to produce a semisolid product like margarine and shortening
A product is likely to contain a significant amount of transfatty acids if partially hydrogenated vegetable oil is listed in the first three ingredients on the label
Transfatty acids do what to the LDLs (bad cholesterol) raise them
Hydrogenated fats are polyunsaturated vegetable oils to which hydrogen has been added commercially to make them solid at room temperature
Hydrogenation is the combining of fat with hydrogen, thereby making it a saturated fat and solid at room temperature
Soft margarine contains more or less saturated fat than firm margarine more
Cholesterol is a sterol
Cholesterol is not a true fat but a fatlike substance that exists in animal foods and body cells
Cholesterol does not exist in plant foods
Cholesterol is essential for they synthesis of bile, sex hormones, cortisone, and vitamin D and is needed by every cell in the body
How much cholesterol does the body manufacture per day 800 to 1000 mg
Where does the body manufacture cholesterol in the liver
Cholesterol is thought to be a contributing factor in heart disease because high serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) is common in clients with atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease in which plaque forms on the inside of artery walls, reducing the space for blood flow
Blood cholesterol levels should not exceed 200 mg/dl
Soluble fiber is considered helpful in lowering blood cholesterol because the cholesterol binds to the fiber and is eliminated via the feces, thus preventing it from being absorbed in the small intestine
What percent of fats are digested 95
The chemical digestion of fats occurs mainly in the small intestine
Where are fats not digested in the mouth
How much are fats digested in the stomach only slightly (gastric lipase acts on emulsified fats such as those found in cream and egg yolk)
Fats must be mixed well with what before entering the small intestine gastric juices
What happens with fats in the small intestine bile emulsifies the fats, and the enzyme pancreatic lipase reduces them to fatty acids and glycerol, which the body subsequently absorbs through villi
What are lipoproteins carriers of fat in the blood
Lipoproteins carry the fats to the body cells by way of the blood
Lipoproteins are classified as chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL), according to their mobility and density
Very low density lipoproteins are made primarily by the liver cells and are composed of 55 to 65% triglycerides
Very low density lipoproteins carry what to all cells triglycerides and other lipids
Elevated blood levels greater than 130 mg/dl of LDL are thought to be contributing factors of what atherosclerosis
Low density lipoprotein is sometimes termed bad cholesterol
High density lipoproteins carry what from the cells to the liver for eventual excretion cholesterol
At what level does low HDL become a major risk factor for heart disease 40 mg/dl
Research indicates that a HDL level of what is considered protective against heart disease 60 mg/dl or more
High density lipoproteins are sometimes called good cholesterol
What are ways to increase one’s HDL exercising, maintaining a desirable weight, and giving up smoking
What controls fat metabolism the liver
How does the liver control fat metabolism it hydrolyzes triglycerides and forms new ones from this hydrolysis as needed
Where does the metabolism of fats ultimately occur in the cells, where fatty acids are broken down to carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy
What happens to the portion of fat that is not needed for immediate use it is stored as adipose tissue
What are by products that are used or removed from the body by the circulatory, respiratory, and excretory systems carbon dioxide and water
Lecithin is a fatty substance classified as a phospholipid
Where is lecithin found in both plant and animal foods and is synthesized in the liver
What function does lecithin perform it is a natural emulsifier that helps transport fat in the bloodstream
What is used commercially to make food products smooth lecithin
Fat alternatives are Olestra, Simplesse, and Oatrim
When do deficiency symptoms occur from fats when fats provide less than 10% of the total daily calorie requirement
Is there a specific dietary requirement for fats to be included in the RDAs and DRIs no
What happens with a gross deficiency of fat in the diet eczema, growth may be retarded, and weight loss
Excessive fat in the diet can lead to obesity, cancers of the colon, breast, uterus, and prostate or heart disease
Fat intake should be what percent of the total calories for the day 30%
Fats provide the most concentrated form of energy
Adipose tissue is useful because it protects and insulates
Atherosclerosis is thought to increase the risk of heart attacks
A diet grossly deficient in fats may be deficient in linoleic acid
Invisible fats can be found in cake and cookies
Plant foods that contain saturated fats are coconut and chocolate
When a polyunsaturated vegetable oil is changed to saturated fat, the process is called hydrogenation
Linoleic acid is one of the fatty acids that is known to be essential to the human diet
Cholesterol is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis
Another name for fats is lipids
Three groups of lipids found naturally in the human body and in food are triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols
Fatty acids are organic compounds of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms
Cholesterol is a sterol
HDL (high density lipoprotein) is sometimes called good cholesterol
For digestion, fats require the help of gastric lipase bile, and pancreatic lipase
Proteins are the basic material of every body cell
Proteins functions are to build and repair body tissue, play major roles in regulating various body functions, and provide energy if there is insufficient carbohydrate and fat in the diet
What is the primary function of proteins to build and repair body tissues
Proteins are important components of what hormones and enzymes that are essential for the regulation of metabolism and digestion.
What helps to maintain fluid and electrolyte balances in the body proteins
Proteins are essential for the development of antibodies and, consequently for a healthy immune system
When do proteins provide energy when the supply of carbohydrates and fats in the diet is insufficient
Each gram of protein provides how many calories 4
What provides the highest quality of complete proteins animal foods
Animal food sources provide high biologic value of proteins, saturated fats and cholesterol
Where should complete proteins be selected from low fat animal foods such as fish, lean meats, and low fat dairy products
Plant foods are incomplete proteins and are of a lower biologic quality than those found in animal foods
Meat alternatives are analogues which are made from soybeans and soy protein and other ingredients mixed together to simulate various kinds of meat
Analogues are excellent sources of protein, B vitamins and iron
Classification and quality of a protein depends on the number and types of amino acids it contains
How many amino acids are there 20
How many amino acids are considered essential to humans 10
Essential amino acids are necessary for normal growth and development and must be provided in the diet
Complete proteins are proteins containing all the essential amino acids
Bioavailable is the ability of a nutrient to be readily absorbed and used by the body
Where can the nonessential amino acids be produced in the body from the essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals
Essential amino acids are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine
What essential amino acids are only essential during childhood arginine and histidine
Nonessential amino acids are alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, proline, serine, tyrosine
What nonessential amino acid is only essential during childhood arginine, histidine
Incomplete proteins are those that lack one or more of the essential amino acids
Complementary proteins are incomplete proteins that when combined provide all ten essential amino acids (corn and beans, rice and beans, bread and peanut butter, bread and split pea soup, macaroni and cheese)
What is the only nutrient group that contains nitrogen proteins
Why are amino acids sometimes called the building blocks of protein because they are combined to form the thousands of proteins in the human body
What determines the specific types of proteins within each person heredity
Where does mechanical digestion begin in the mouth with the teeth breaking up the food
Where does chemical digestion begin in the stomach
What does hydrochloric acid do it prepares the stomach so that the enzyme pepsin can begin its task of reducing proteins to polypepsides
What happens after the polypeptides reach the small intestine three pancreatic enzymes (trypisin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase) continue chemical digestion until the intestinal peptidases finally reduce the proteins to amino acids
What happens to the amino acids after digestion the amino acids in the small intestine are absorbed by the villi and are carried by the blood to all body tissues where they are used to form needed proteins
What happens when amino acids ate broken down the nitrogen containing amine group is stripped off via the process of deamination
What is the process of deamination the process of producing ammonia, which is released into the bloodstream by the cells, it is picked up by the liver, converted to urea, and returned to the bloodstream for the kidneys to filter out and excrete
What happens to the remaining parts of the broken down amino acids they are used for energy or are converted to carbohydrate or fat and stored as glycogen or adipose tissue
What is a person’s protein requirement determined by size, age, sex, and physical and emotional conditions
Who needs more protein in their diet a large person, a growing child 9.1 to 19), a pregnant woman (71), or a woman who is breastfeeding (71)
What happens when digestion is inefficient fewer amino acids are absorbed by the body and the protein requirement is higher
When are extra proteins usually required after surgery, severe burns, or during infections in order to replace lost tissue and to manufacture antibodies, or during emotional trauma due to the body excreting more nitrogen than normal
Trypsin is a pancreatic enzyme that helps digest proteins
Chymotrypsin is a pancreatic enzyme necessary for the digestion of proteins
Carboxypeptidase is a pancreatic enzyme necessary for protein digestion
What is the average adult’s daily requirement of protein 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight
The saturated fats and cholesterol common to complete protein foods may contribute to heart disease and provide more calories than desirable
What have some studies indicated a connection between long term high protein diets colon cancer and high calcium excretion, which depletes the bones of calcium and may contribute to osteoporosis
What does the National Research Council recommend that protein intake represent no more than 15 to 20% of one’s daily calorie intake and not exceed double the amount given in the table of DRIs
Protein and amino acid supplements do not build muscles, increase nail growth or provide the needed nutrition that should be obtained from a balanced diet
What is nitrogen balance when nitrogen intake equals the amount of nitrogen excreted
What is positive nitrogen balance when nitrogen intake exceeds the amount excreted which indicates that new tissue is being formed
When does positive nitrogen balance occur during pregnancy, during children’s growing years, when athletes develop additional muscle tissue, and when tissues are rebuilt after physical trauma such as illness and injury
What is negative nitrogen balance indicates that protein is being lost, it may be caused by fevers, injury, surgery, burns, starvation, or immobilization
What happens when people are unable to obtain an adequate supply of protein for an extended period muscle wasting and arms and legs will become very thin
What does albumin deficiency cause edema (the water is excreted when sufficient protein is eaten)
What is albumin protein in blood plasma
What symptoms will a person with protein deficiency show loss of appetite, strength, and weight, and wounds may heal very slowly
What are symptoms that patients suffering from edema may show lethargy and depression
What is protein energy malnutrition (PEM) malnutrition resulting from inadequate intake of protein and energy rich foods; marasmus and kwashiorkor
What is marasmus severe wasting caused by lack of protein and all nutrients or faulty absorption (young children), appears emancipated but does not have edema, hair is dull and dry and skin is thin and wrinkled
What is kwashiorkor deficiency disease caused by extreme lack of protein, appears when there is a sudden or recent lack of protein containing food, causes fat to accumulate in the liver, edema, painful skin lesions, and changes in the pigmentation of skin and hair
The building blocks of proteins are amino acids
Proteins are essential because they are the only nutrient that contains nitrogen
Corn, peas, and beans are incomplete protein foods
Protein deficiency may result in edema
Good sources of complete protein foods are eggs and ground beef
One gram of protein provides 4 calories
Complete proteins contain all the essential amino acids
The primary function of protein is to build and repair body cells
Once proteins reach the small intestine, chemical digestion continues through the action of pancreatic enzymes
It is unwise to regularly ingest excessive amounts of protein because it can contribute to heart disease
Created by: 100002251654686