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Cells p. 19-33

Cells the basic unit of structure & function of all living things
A Composite Cell doesn't exist; contains all of the parts that a cell might have
The Cell Membrane a selective barrier between the solution outside of the cell & the solution inside of the cell; mostly phospholipid bilayer with a little bit of cholesterol
Phospholipid Bilayer 2 layers of molecules, barrier, oily, keeps the outside solution from mixing with the inside solution
Cholesterol keeps the membrane flexible; found between some of the tails
Proteins Specialists
Receptors proteins in the cell membrane that bind to a chemical message and cause a change in the function of the cell
Pores/Channels provides a passageway through the barrier that connects the outside solution with the inside solution; can be controlled; very specific
Carriers carry something across the membrane; can be controlled; very specific
Permeable can cross the barrier (lipids)
Impermeable can't cross the barrier without help (water soluble)
Semipermeable (selectively permeable) example: membrane; has the ability to choose, select & control what crosses
The Cytoplasm cell fluid; found inside of the cell membrane and outside of the organelles
The Organelles structures inside of the cell
Ribosomes smallest of organelles, located everywhere; function: uses information from mRNA to make proteins, the process is called translation
Endoplasmic Reticulum internal transportation system within the cell used for moving materials around the inside of the cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum has ribosomes on outer surface
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum no ribosomes on outer surface
Golgi Apparatus helps to package things that the cell is going to secrete, "smuggles" it across the membrane via transport vesicles
Mitochondria has it's own DNA that you received only from your mother; function: cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration involves oxygen & carbon dioxide, uses glucose & oxygen, gives off carbon dioxide and water waste products; burning glucose produces ATP
ATP fuel for the cell
Lysosomes contain ensymes that help to break things down; function: breaking down things that are found inside of the cell
Centrioles always found in pairs, used to help separate chromosomes during mitosis (1 pr- not mitosis, 2 pr- during mitosis)
Cilia(um) moves things over the surface of the cell in a certain direction
Flagella(um) can be used to move the cell; only human cell that has it is a sperm cell
Nucleus round, porous membrane, largest of organelles; function: selecting which genes to use and when to use them, controlling how the genes are going to be used
Nucleolus dark dense area inside of the nucleus that makes ribosomes
Chromatin where we find DNA, found during interphase, provides access to the genes
Chromosomes bundle of DNA found only during mitosis, cannot be used at this time; function: help to divide DNA for the new cells "moving boxes"
ATP what our cells can use as a source of energy; Adenosine Triphosphate; function: provide energy for the cell
Active Transport uses ATP to move something
Passive Transport does not use ATP
Diffusion uses the energy from the molecule for movement; random movement of dissolved substances (solute) from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration, can take place in liquid or in the air, gives equal distribution
Osmosis the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane, will make concentration equal; difference in concentration, semipermeable membrane, hypertonic solution
Facilitated Diffusion uses a carrier that carries something across the membrane, carrier will be a protein that is in the cell membrane; glucose is the best example
Filtration requires a porous membrane separating 2 solutions muse be a difference in the pressure of the 2 solutions; happens in every tissue of our body
Na+/K+ pumps sodium/potassium pump is a protein found on many of the cell membranes; has the ability to pump sodium out while pumping potassium in
Endocytosis is when we move something into the cell by changing the shape of the cell membrane
Pinocytosis moving a liquid into the cell by endocytosis
Phagocytosis moving a solid substance into the cell by endocytosis
Exocytosis out of/leaving
Differentiation changing from a stem cell into a specialized cell; involves using a certain set of genes
Interphase growth & replication of DNA; not dividing, working
Growth occurs at the beginning of interphase or when the cell is working
Replication of DNA making a copy of the DNA occurs only if the cell is going to divide and happens just before it divides; occurs at the end of interphase
Mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Prophase to get all of the DNA paired up & organized
Metaphase chromosomes lined up, spindle fibers connect chromosomes to centrioles
Anaphase spindle fibers shorten and pull chromosomes
Telophase pinch in 1/2, chromosomes change back into chromatin, build a nucleus
Cytokinesis pinching in 1/2
Metabolism all of the chemical reactions occurring within a living organism; NOT digestion
Anabolism (anabolic metabolism) reactions that produce/build/make things
Catabolism (catabolic metabolism) reactions that break things down
digestion change nutrients into something that we can absorb
Catabolic Metabolism of Carbohydrates digestion of carbohydrates, anaerobic metabolism of glucose, aerobic metabolism of pyruvic acid
Digestion of Carbohydrates the only carbohydrate we can absorb is a monosaccharide, all carbohydrates must be broken into monosaccharides
Anaerobic Metabolism of Glucose splits glucose in half, (no oxygen required), releases enough energy to make 2 ATP, takes place in the cytoplasm
Aerobic Metabolism of Pyruvic Acid uses oxygen, takes place in the mitochondria, releases enough energy to make 34 ATP
Anabolic Metabolism of Glucose glucose into glycogen, made in the liver & skeletal muscle, allows us to store carbohydrates, glucose stored as fat if there is no room for glycogen
Protein Synthesis 2 steps; make a copy of a gene (takes place in the nucleus)
Transcription making mRNA
Translation leave nucleus, go out to ribosomes, ribosomes uses copy (mRNA) to make a protein
Created by: bco