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Chemistry p. 13-16

Atoms the smallest particle of an element, always have same number of protons & electrons, no charge
Subatomic Particle pieces of an atom
Proton found in the nucleus, charge of +1, weight of 1, number of protons identifies the atom
Neutron neutral, no charge, found in the nucleus, weight of 1, make nucleus stable, keep protons from repelling one another
Electron smallest of particles, located in shells around the nucleus, constantly moving throughout those shells, charge of -1, outer shell electrons react (involved in chemical reactions)
Ions atoms that have lost or gained electrons, always have a charge, charge will tell you if they have lost or gained electrons
Cation ions that are formed when we lose an electron, have more protons than electrons, positive charge
Anion ions that are formed when we gain an electron, have more electrons than protons, negative charge
Elements pure substances made up of identical atoms
Elements in the Body Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium & Chloride
H Hydrogen
O Oxygen
C Carbon
N Nitrogen
K+1 Potassium
Na+1 Sodium
Ca+2 Calcium
Cl-1 Chloride
Molecules 2 or more atoms that are bonded together
Compound pure substance containing identical molecules
Carbohydrate most important one is glucose, stored as polysaccharides, animals store it as glycogen, plants make starch
Glucose what our bodies use for energy
Polysaccharides long chains of glucose
Proteins long chains of amino acids, 20 different amino acids, fold into a very specific shape that is essential to it's function
Lipids organic molecules made by living things that dissolve poorly in water, liquid form=oils & fats
Cholesterol hormones made from cholesterol are steroids (also a lipid)
Triglyceride most common fat in our diet
Nucleic Acids 2 main categories, mRNA & DNA
mRNA messenger RNA, a copy of one gene
DNA double stranded, found in almost every cell in our body- in the nucleus, every cell has identical DNA, it contains all of your genes, each gene has the code for 1 protein
Inorganic Compounds in the Body mostly contain some carbon, but not always made by living things
Water most common and most important inorganic compound in our body; universal solvent
Solutions mixture of different chemicals, always fluids (gas or liquid)
Solvent liquid used to dissolve other things
Solute material that is being dissolved
Hypertonic higher concentrations of solute
Hypotonic lower concentration of solute
Isotonic 2 solutions that have the same total concentration of solute
pH scale is a way of measuring the concentration of Hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution, range of 0-14
aqueous water is the solvent
Acids pH less than 7, low concentration of hydroxide
Bases pH greater than 7, high concentration of hydroxide
Created by: bco