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Endocrine Test 3


Disorders of the adrenal glands Adrenal hyperfunction (Cushings syndrome), adrenal hypofunction (Addisons disease) and pheochromocytoma
Adrenal glands location Above the kidneys
Two regions of the adrenal glands Medulla and cortex
Adrenal medulla Inner portion of the adrenal gland
Adrenal cortex Outer portion of the adrenal gland
Extension of the sympathetic nervous system Adrenal medulla
Sympathetic nervous system called... Fight or flight system
What cells in the adrenal medulla secrete hormones? Chromaffin cells
Two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are considered... Catecholimines
Catecholimines help the body respond to stress by... Elevating blood pressure, increasing heart rate, converting glycogen to glucose in the liver, increasing metabolic rate of most cells, causing bronchodilation, and changing blood flow patterns
Adrenal cortex secretes... Hormones called steroids
Steroids Lipid-soluble hormones made from cholesterol
Three steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex hormones
If adrenal cortex is removed... Death will occur unless steroids are administered
Adrenal cortical steroids regulate Sugar, salt and sex
Glucocorticoids Affect carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism
Chief glucocorticoid Cortisol
Cortisol Stress hormone that is secreted in greater amounts during times of stress
Cortisol is also used as... A drug to prevent inflammation in the treatment of arthritis and sever allergic responses
What stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol? ACTH
Chief mineralocorticoid Aldosterone
Aldosterone Regulates blood volume and blood pressure
Aldosterone often called... The salt retaining hormone
Female hormones Estrogens
Male hormones Androgens
Hyposecretion of the adrenal gland to secrete cortical hormones Addisons disease
Addisons disease characterized by... Generalized weakness, muscle atrophy, bronzing of the skin, hyperkalemia and sever loss of fluids and electrolytes
Adrenal insufficiency can progress to... Low blood volume, shock and death
Adrenal insufficiency must be treated with... Steroids and replacement of fluids and electrolytes
Hypersecretion of either ACTH or cortisol Cushings syndrome
Cushings syndrome characterized by... Truncal obesity, moon face, buffalo hump, virilization, facial hair, thin skin that bruises easily, bone loss, and muscle weakness
Elevated levels of cortisol are often caused by... Administration of steroids as drugs such as prednisone
Adrenocortical insuffiency occurs when... Adrenal glands do not secrete adequate amount of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens
Addisons disease may result from... Adrenalectomy, pituitary hypofunction, or longstanding steroid therapy
Most common cause of Addisons disease Autoimmune response
Adrenal insufficiency most often occurs in... Adults less than 60 years of age
Addisons disease is ofetn advanced before... It is diagnosed
Manifestations of Addisons are usually not present until... 90% of the adrenal cortex is destroyed
Clinical manifestations of Addisons disease Imbalances in adrenal hormones, nutrients and electrolytes
Subjective data for Addisons disease Progressive weakness, fatigue, nausea, anorexia, and craving for salt
Postural hypotension may be associated with... Vertigo, weakness and syncope
Objective data for Addisons disease Skin hyperpigmentation, weight loss and hypoglycemia
Adrenal crisis Life threatening emergency caused by insufficient adrenocortical hormones or a sudden sharp decrease in hormones
Signs of impending adreanl crisis Abnormally high or low temperature, orthostatic hypotension, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia
Most common form of replacement therapy for Addisons disease Hydrocortisone
Addisons disease diet High in sodium and low in potassium
Pheochromocytoma Tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes excessive secretion of catecholimines
Pheochromocytoma often occurs in... Adults 20-60 years old
Secretion of excessive catecholimines results in... Severe hypertension
Hypertensive crisis Blood pressure fluctuates widely, sometimes as high as 300/175
Extreme hypertension may result in... Stroke, kidney damage or retinopathy
Treatment of pheochromocytoma Surgical removal of the tumor
Created by: caysmommy03