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Toxidromes

QuestionAnswer
Define toxidrome A toxic syndrome made up of a constellation of signs and symptoms that consistently result from a particular toxin.
What are common toxidromes? Cholinergic Anticholinergic Narcotic/Opioid Sedative/Hypnotic Sympathomimetics Hallucinogenics
What characterises cholinergic toxidromes? Elevated levels of acetycholine.
What are examples of cholinergics? Nicotine and mushrooms.
What are examples of anticholinesterases? Organophosphates Carbamate insecticides Nerve gas (sarin) Urethanes
What is the mnemonic for remembering cholinergic toxidromes's symptoms? DUMBELS
What does the mnemonic DUMBELS stand for? D-iaphoresis. U-rination. M-iosis. B-ronchorrhea, broncheospasm,bradycardia. E-mesis, excitation of skeleteal muscle. L-acrimation. S-alivation,seizures.
What is the management of cholinergic toxidromes? Atropine and supportive ABC's.
What is the definition of an anticholinergic drug? A drug that generally interferes with the binding of acetycholine to muscarinic receptors.
What does the administration of anicholinergic drugs result in? The inhibition or blockage of the parasympathetic nervous system.
What are examples of anticholinergic drugs? Atropine Anithistamines Antipsychotics Antiparkinsons TCA's - Tricyclic antidepressants
What are the symptoms of the anticholinergic toxidrome? Altered LOC - agitation, hallucinations. Mydriasis and blurred vision Hot,dry,flushed skin- hyperthermia Dry mucus membranes Tachycardia, palpations, arrythmias Urinary retention, decreased bowel sounds
What is the management of the anticholinergic toxidrome? Support ABC Monitor ECG IV
Define sympomemetic toxidrome. A toxidrome that mimics the sympathetic nervous system effects.
What toxidrome is produced when a pt is withdrawing from alcohol or drugs? Sympathomimetic toxidrome.
Whithdrawal from what drugs may produce a sympathomimetic woxidrome? Caffine Cocaine Amphetamine LSD Ecstacy Theophylline
What is an easy way of telling between anticholinergic and sympathomimetic toxidromes? Anticholinergic - flushed, dry skin, no sweating. Sympathomimetic - pale skin, diaphoresis.
What is the mnemonic for remembering the symptoms of sympathomimetic toxidromes? THIRDS.
What does the mnemonic THIRDS stand for? T-achycardia H-yperthermia I-ncreased motor activity R-estlessness D-ilated pupils S-weating
What is the management for sympathomimentic toxidromes? Supportive ABCs Cooling as required Monitor ECG IV Consider 0.9 NaCl infusion.
Created by: boermedic