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CJ CH6

policing operations

QuestionAnswer
definition of maintaining order-keeping the peace peace-keeping activities, including enforcement of quality of life laws (ex. no loitering); enforcement of local statutes; police officers not only enforce the law but handle situations; ex. traffic & crowd control
enforcing the law when arrest is needed; the police agency's application of the criminal code to specific situations; not black & white; more laws than officers can enforce so they enforce those their department enforces; more serious crimes are more focused on;
apprehending suspects lies at the heart of law enforcement
crimes are sorted by seriousness and resources available
providing service non emergency police work
service activities non-law enforcement duties performed by officers on an as-needed basis (ex. directions, barricading dangerous roads); service oriented; values community out reach
example for maintaining order managing crowds
example for enforcing the law making an arrest
example for providing service giving someone directions
preventive patrol the practice of assigning an officer to random patrol of a neighborhood to serve as a deterrent to a variety of street-level crimes; ex. prostitution, robbery; often conducted by patrol car, foot, or bike; reduce street crime
problem-oriented policing a policing strategy based on conducting specific and detailed research on a community's problems to discover the underlying dynamics of a crime; proposed by herman Goldstein
step 1 of problem-oriented policing conducting specific and detailed research on a community's problems to reveal the underlying dynamics of crime; helps police respond appropriately
step 2 of problem-oriented policing examine the ways in which the police department currently deals with a particular problem in order to identify the most effective responses; has this strategy worked?; departments review both their own responses and other relevant research as well
step 3 of problem-oriented policing devising strategies to address the problem; what can we do to make this better?; SARA;
SARA Scanning, analysis, response, and assessment)
S of Sara scanning; police department identifies the problem (ex. frequency, consequences)
first A of Sara analysis; identifies what's causing or influencing the problem
R of Sara response; participants think creatively about ways to solve the problem (defines objectives)
second A or Sara assessment; officers determine whether the program met the goals
community-oriented policing a policing strategy that depends on getting community members to address the problems that plague their neighborhood
4 parts of community-oriented policing police-community reciprocity; decentralization of command; proactive foot patrol; civilianization
police-community reciprocity a policing practice that relies on collaboration between police and community members to solve and prevent crime; mutually beneficial bond is needed; it's everyone's job to fight crime
decentralization of command the fanning out of substations in various areas so the police maintain a physical presence throughout the city
proactive foot patrol a component of community policing that leads to increased interactions between the police and community members to improve relationships; lets officers learn more about the people they patrol and develop relationships
civilianization increases the # of community residents active in the profession of policing by assigning to civilians tasks previously performed by sworn officers; CSO help gather info on non-serious crimes; cons: poice & citizens might have different ideas of community
implementing community police difficult and slow process; measured through surveys; structure of police department doesn't change whether or not community policing is implimented; requires a change in police culture
impact of community policing raises community trust in police; raises support of police
aggressive order maintenance policing activities that address noncriminal or minor offenses that affect residents' quality of life; zero-tolerance; police focus on minor public order offenses (ex. graffiti, loitering); increases arrests for minor offenses
broken windown theory theory proposing that disorder leads to crime because criminals assume a neighborhood that tolerates disorder will also ignore criminal acts (disorder leads to more serious crime)
line activities the principal activities performed by law enforcement officers, including patrol, follow-up investigation, and traffic operations
support activities additional policing activities that support line activities, such as communications, custody, and forensic
the rookie officer meeting the real world; 1st day is usually overwhelming; they're immersed in maintaining order, enforcing law, and providing service; supervised by a training officer; every action seems to take longer than expected
patrol officer a uniformed person assigned to patrol specific regions of a city or county; perform the bulk of police work; 1st individuals to respond to a call for service; most visible face of the police force; must document everything they see
who is the backbone of policing patrol officer
follow-up investigation occurs after a patrol officer documents the facts of the crime; for serious crimes (ex. homicide) the detective may be called directly to the scene & receive a briefing from the 1st ersponder; normally patrol officer reports to them the next day
sources are limited so priority is determined by _________ and _____________ seriousness and solvability
solvability the likelihood that a crime will be solved
quality of the patrol officer's preliminary investigation, the availability of a witness, a suspect's name or identifying info, significant physical evidence, and identification of a unique method of operation by the perpetrator affect _________ solvability
they visit the crime scene and document everything related to the case during the follow-up investigation
enforcing traffic laws police are primarily in charge of public safety; police are equipped to find & capture suspects on the run; police have to try & make driving safe; police are equipped to handle situations that might result from traffic stops
examples of traffic stops drunk drivers; persons with outstanding warrants
traffic cops elicit statements & document facts relating to traffic collisions; in many places police pair with community agencies that draft & implement transportation policy (ex. local department of transportation)
communications technology the CNS of policing; coordinates the performance of law enforcement activities
computer-aided dispatch supplements radio communication & allow patrol officers to remotely search databases for ___________ warrants
mobile video systems include vehicle-mounted cameras that capture audio & video information
communications interoperability the ability of police & other public safety agencies from different jurisdictions to talk & share data in real time; help make less time lost in translation; ex. fire stations
custody booking and holding offenders; the incarceration of persons either accused or convicted of a crime; length of custody varies
_______________________ maintain temporary holding facilities before taking the suspect to a judge or releasing them police departments
people in custody may be __________ and/or _________ finger printed and/or questioned
custody is usually a core function of a _________ department sheriff's
forensics applying science to investigations; the application of scientific knowledge & methods to criminal & civil investigations & legal procedures, including criminal trials
forensic science laboratories facilities using scientific or technical methods to process & analyze evidence
criminalistics the application of scientific techniques to recognizing, identifying, individualizing, & evaluating physical evidence in legal proceedings
2 factors make forensics a prominent role increased awareness of its value in identifying & protecting evidence; advances in technology
downside to forensics takes days, weeks, or even months to get results; the back log is huge
chain of command the line of authority that extends throughout a police organization
unity of command the requirement that each individual within an organization reports directly to a single individual higher in the chain of command
span of control the extent of an individual's authority, or the number of individuals that one person is responsible for over seeing
the general behavior of all officers is embodied by _________ whose actions represent a consistency of conduct that assures citizens that the law is applied in an equitable manner the chief
police organization use to be what format? hierarchical
police organization is becoming decentralized to help community policing work better
after 911 terrorist liaison officers were created to gather info that could be linked to terrorist activity; police departments began sharing more info with each other
factors affecting resource allocation demands of the citizens; administrative requirements of the police agency; agendas of local gov't leaders; most decisions fall under scrutiny after they are made; affects police organization's administrative & support needs (ex. staff); local politics
in addition to local politics, pressure from a particular group can affect the deployment of police resources
technological resources GIS; computerized statistics
GIS (geographic information systems) a technology that uses a computerized mapping system to produce descriptions of crime occurence & analyzes the relationships between variables such as time & location; ex. crime mapping, hot spot
crime mapping a technique used by police to pinpoint the locations & times of crimes; reveals hot spots; helps police focus on hot spots
hot spots areas of concentrated crime or higher victimization
CompStat (computerized statistics) a computerized statistical program that integrates info from crime maps across the city for department leaders' review; increases flow of info between agency executives & commanders of operatioal units; helps ensure resources are being used effectively
6 aspects of CompStat mission clarification, interval accountability, geographic organization of command, organizational flexibility, data-driven problem identification & assessment, & innovative problem solving
CompStat is easily adapted by existing policing operations without making radical ______________________ changes organizational
crime analysis the application of processes designed to analyze info pertinent to crimes & develop correlations useful in crime prevention, resource deployment, investigations, & suspect apprehension; have greatly improved how agencies deploy their recourses
before modern crime analysis was "bud-shell Method"
bud-shell method a police administrator sitting with a 6-pack of Budweiser & a shell gas station road map used a marker to draw lines down major arteries & create policing districts on the basis of geography; they were uniform in size but not so in crime rate
follow up crime analysis examination of a crime scene in the context of an offender's behaviors; knowing what the perpetrator did & didn't do can help explain the why(motive); help reveal patterns to help catch criminals who commit the same crime same way (ex. serial killer)
guidelines for discretion necessary obtrusion for immediate physical dangers; necessary obtrusion to deter future disorder; civil cause of disorder vs. criminal cause; social/state issues regarding justice; don't get emotionally involved
public is mostly supportive of __________ but much less so of the ___________________ police; CJ system
public is influenced by media & high profile cases
public generally believes that racial profiling happens more than ______________ police brutality
whites have more confidence in the police than _____________ non-whites
lower class and education levels trust the the police _________________ than those of higher class or education less
among blacks and Latinos, men think racial profiling is ___________ than women do higher
elder abuse any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or other person that causes harm or serious risk of harm to a vulernable adult 60 years of age or older; abuse may be physical, emotional, sexual, or exploitation, neglect, or abandonment
exploitation the taking, misuse, or concealment of funds
elder abuse is a new area of... Criminal justice
Adult protective services (APS) services provided to older people&dependent adults who are in danger of being abused, and have no one else to assist them; officers must watch the physical condition of the home the elderly are living in, accomedations & their health
with elderly adults police officers must understand patience with those that are confused, forgetful, and/or on medication
the most common perpetrators of elderly abuse are family members
TRIAD police, sheriff, and elderly; use problem solving and police strategies to help the elderly
SALT seniors and lawmen together; volunteer council that guides TRIAD
people with disabilities have a higher risk of being victimized; perpetrators are normally the victim's caretaker; more building are being built to ensure access for the disabled
why do people with disabilities rarely go to the police because the perpetrator is the victim's caretaker or because the disability prevents them from doing so
the mentally ill police usually interact with them b/c the police get a complaint call; most police academies don't include specific training to identify those who may be mentally ill or info on how to use community resources to help them
if a person seems irrational 1st attempt to transport the individual to a facility that provides psychiatric care if they are a danger to them self or the community
if a person seems irrational and the 1st step didn't work arrest them for disorderly conduct (usually used if a hospital refuses to admit the patient)
if a person seems irrational and the 1st step didn't work and you didn't want to do step 2 yet resolve the situation informally if the individual is a "neighborhood character", "trouble maker", or "quiet mental"
"neighborhood character" individuals the police know well because of their visibility in the community and aren't a threat to public safety
"trouble makers" those who have created problems for officers in the past
"quiet mental" individuals who seem detached from reality but aren't a nuisance to themselves or the public
when admission to hospitals decrease... arrests increase
homeless the state of having no fixed, reliable, or adequate night-time residence
about 400,000 to over 3.5 million people are homeless
what percent of people homeless are families 23%
what percent of people that are homeless are male 76%
police are called when individuals complain about the homeless doing what reducing the quality of life in their communities
pressure from the community has led some police officers to transport homeless to other jurisdictions which is also called dumping
the homeless are often vicitims of what type of crime sexual
what percent of homeless are mentally ill 16%
in 1800s and early 1900 police officers were the onlygov't employees who interacted with new immigrants
reporting crimes to the police is difficult if you don't know english well
cultural differences something could now be illegal
the USA is very diverse and police officers have to know how to handle that (what are examples) recruiting immigrants to help deal with immigrants
some departments have out reach programs for immigrants
police speak english but immigrants may not so some departments pay officers to be translators or offer language programs
rural communities almost 1/2 of all policing agencies in the USA have less than 10 sworn officers; crime isn't as obvious (16.4 violent crimes per 1000 people)
what percent of police department nationwide serve 25,000 or fewer people 90%
rural police officers view work differently from big city police officers
rural officers are more supportive of community policing strategies than urban officers
rural officers usually have good relationships with the community
Created by: 530848841