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Chapter 7: Vocab

Cell Structure & Function Vocab

Cell The basic unit of life.
Cell Theory The theory that all living things are composed of cells, cells are basic units of structure & function,& cells come from cells.
Nucleus A large membrane-enclosed structure that contains a cell's genetic material in the form of DNA.
Eukaryotes Cells that contain nuclei that separates their genetic material from the rest of the cell.
Prokaryotes Cells that do not contain nuclei; their genetic material is not contained in the nucleus.
Organelles A specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell.
Cytoplasm The portion of a cell outide the nuclues.
Nuclear Envelope The layer of two membranes that surrounds a cell's nucleus.
Chromatin The granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
Chromosomes A threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
Nucleolus A small dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of protein begins.
Ribosomes A small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein.
Endoplasmic Reticulum The internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are asembled and some proteins are modified.
Golgi Apparatus The stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Lysosome The cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell.
Vacuole The cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Mitochondria The cell organelle that coverts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
Chloroplast The organelle found in plants & some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight & converts it into chemical energy.
Cytoskeleton The network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maitain its shape & is involved in many forms of cell movement.
Centriole One of two tiny stuctures located in the cytoplasm of animals cells, near the nuclear envelope.
Cell Membrane The thin, flexible barrier around a cell that regulates what enters & leaves the cell.
Cell Wall A strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane found in plants,algae,& some bacteria.
Lipid Bilayer The double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes.
Cocentration The mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume.
Diffusion The process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
Equilibrium When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution.
Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable cell.
Isotonic When the concentration of two solutions is the same.
Hypertonic (Between two solutions) The solution with the greater concentration of solutes.
Hypotonic (Between two solutions) The solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.
Facilitated Diffusion The movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
Active Transport An energy-required process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.
Endocytosis The process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane.
Phagocytosis Extensions of cytoplasm that surround a particle and package it within a vacuole.
Pinocytosis When tiny pockets form along the cell membrane, fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles within the cell.
Exocytosis When the membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell.
Cell Specialization The process in which cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.
Tissue A group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
Organ A group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.
Organ System A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
Created by: 118280