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MIC 205 Fungi

Exam 2

What is mycology? The study of fungi
What are characteristics of the three major groups of fungi? Yeasts—unicellular; Molds—form aerial and vegetative hyphae; Mushrooms—fleshy fungi
What are lichens? Molds in symbiotic relationships with photosynthetic organisms
What are hyphae? Long, branched, tubular filaments in the thalli of molds
What is the difference between vegetative and aerial hyphae? Vegetative hyphae are in physical contact with whatever the fungi is feeding on; Aerial hyphae produce asexual spores
What are mycelium? Tangled mass of hyphae
How do fungi differ from bacteria? fungi have spores
Are fungi eukaryotes or prokaryotes? Eukaryotes
Describe their metabolism. Metabolize organic matter
Are fungi plants? No
What is the major component of fungi cell walls? chitin
Are fungi pathogenic for man? Animals? Plants? Man-100 yes; Animals-100 yes; Plants-most yes
Fungi reproduce asexually and sexually. Name five types of asexual spores. Arthrospores; Chlamydospores; Sporangiospores; Conidiospores; Blastospores
How are fungi classified? By their spores
In what three divisions do we classify fungi? Zygomycota; Ascomycota; Basidiomycota
What are some characteristics of the Fungi Imperfecti? Pathogens; Dimorphic—yeast and mold stages
What is a dimorphic fungus? A fungus with yeast and mold stages
How are fungi beneficial to us? Cancer drugs, beer, bread, citric acid, antibiotics, bioremediation
How are fungi beneficial to plants? Help them grow
Where do we normally find Candida albicans? Normal flora mucous membranes
Under what circumstances will this yeast (Candida albicans) cause infection? Causes infection after antibiotic therapy that kills normal flora
What is thrush? yeast infection of the mucus membrane lining of the mouth and tongue
Describe Cryptococcus neoformans. yeast
What symptoms/conditions are associated with Cryptococcus infection? Pneumonia, meningitis, some skin lesions
How do we diagnose infections with this yeast (Cryptococcus neoformans)? Capsule diagnostic in spinal fluid
How do we become infected with Cryptococcus neoformans? Spores inhaled from pigeon droppings and dust
Name three ways that molds cause disease. Allergic reaction; Toxins; Infect tissue
Name three molds that produce toxins. Aspergillus flavus; Claviceps purpurea; Stachybotrys chartarum
What foods are likely to contain these toxins when produced? Gains, peanuts, peanut butter
Which toxin is carcinogenic? aflatoxins
Which toxin produces symptoms similar to LSD exposure? ergot
Which toxin produces chemicals used to treat migraine headaches and stimulate labor contractions for pregnant women? ergot
Which toxin may be associated with sick-building syndrome? satratoxins
What is the difference between superficial, subcutaneous, and systemic mycotic infections? Superficial—outermost layers of skin and hair; Subcutaneous—dermis, subcutaneous tissues, muscle, and fascia; Systemic—organ systems
Describe the diseases caused by Tricophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton. Tinea infections—“ringworm”; Hair loss, red skin, blisters, rash or scaly rings; Contagious
How do they break down skin, nails, and hair? Use keratin as a nutrient source
What organism causes rose thorn disease? Sporothrix schenkii
What is the proper name of the rose thorn disease? Sporotrichosis
Who is likely to get infected with this fungus? Gardeners and people who work with wood are common victims
Name three dimorphic fungi that cause similar diseases. Coccidioides immitis; Histoplasma capsulatum; Blastomyces dermatiditis
In what geographic area is each usually found? Coccidioides immitis—Southwestern U.S. (Arizona); Histoplasma capsulatum—Ohio/Mississippi River Valley; Blastomyces dermatiditis—Canada, Great Lakes, Midwest, Southeastern U.S.
Most people are infected by these fungi by inhaling their spores. Which one causes infection by entering through cuts and abrasions? Blastomyces dermatiditis
Describe at least six ways to diagnose fungal infections. Grow on media; Wet preps; Stains; Woods lamp; Serology; X-ray; Biopsy; DNA Probes
Created by: slarmentrout