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The Atmosphere :D

flashcards on the layers, winds, and more!

Describe the compostion of the earth's atmospere. The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that become thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is composed of Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%),and other gases (1%).
What is a barometer and what does it measure? This is an insturment that measures atmosperic pressure.
What are the two types of barometers? How are they different? Mercurial- atmosperic pressure presses on the liquid mercury puishing it to a specific height which varies with atmosperic pressure. Aneroid-a sealed container without air , when pressure increases sides bend inward and when it decreases it buldges out.
What is standard atmosperic pressure? It indicates the measurement on the barometer. Also known as (1 atmospere)
Troposphere *layer closest to the earths surface *where all weather accures *has 75% of the earths air
Startosphere contains the ozone layer
Mesosphere Protects the earth from meteorites!Friction in the air causes meteores to vaporize.
Thermosphere *highest layer *consists of two parts: exosphere,ionosphere. *little to no air *contains earth's man made satellites
Ionosphere and Exospere Ionospere- Radio waves bounce off electrically charged ions in the atmosphere back to the surface of Earth. Aurora borealis and Aurora australias caused by light particles from the sun that enter the Ionosphere near the poles Exospere- outer space
How does radiant energy reach the earth? they travel through space as waves at very high speeds.
What is the elcotromagnetic spectrum? The complete range of wavelengths.
Wavelengths Short wavelengths are untraviolet rays, X-rays,and gamma rays Longer wavelengths include infrared waves and radio waves.The waves make up all forms of radiation called electromagnetic waves.
What is radiation? All energy that the earth recieves from the sun travels through space between the earth and the sun.Includes all forms of energy that travel through space as waves.
What is scattering? Clouds,dust,and gas molecules in the atmosphere affect the path of radiation from the sun. Water droplets and dust suspended in the atmosphere reflect and bend the rays. Sends SOME of the radiation back to space.
What is reflection? Of the total amount of solor energy reaching the earth's atmosphere 20%is absorbed bby the atmosphere,30% is scattered back into space or is reflected from clouds,the remaining 50% is absorbed by the earth
What is Albedo? the fraction of solor radiation relflected by a particular surface.
Conduction the molecules in a substance move faster as they become heated and cause other molecules to move faster as heated.
Convection transfer of heat through the movement of heated material.
What is the greenhouse effect? process by which the atmosphere traps infrared rays over the earths surface.
Convection Cells The air flowing from the equator completes three loopings patterns of flow.
Trade Winds the winds in both hemispheres flowing toward the equator between 30 and 0 degree latitude.
Doldrums the trade wind systems of the Northern and Southern hemispheres meet at the equator in a narrow zone.The air in this warm zone moves mainly upward, and near the earth's surface the winds are weak and undependable.
Horse Latitudes A belt of high pressure in the vicinity of 30 degree latitude is created by the descending air.
Westerlies global winds located between 40 degrees and 60 degrees latitude that flow from the southwest in the northern hemisphere and from northeast in the southern hemisphere
Subpolor Lows belt of low air pressure at about 60 degrees north and 60 degrees south latitude.
Polor Easterlies weak global winds located north of 65 degrees north latitude and south of 65 degrees south latitude that flow away from the poles.
Jet Streams bands of high-speed, high-altitude westerly winds
What is the Coriolis Effect? it is the deflection of wind and ocean currents caused by the earths rotation. Northern Hem. deflected to right, Southern Hem. deflected to left.
Created by: Natmarsh23