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Si chap. 9

Cognition the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Prototype a mental image or best example of a category
Algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
Heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
Insight a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
Fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective
Mental set a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way
Functional fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
Representativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent particular prototypes
Availability heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
Overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct
Belief perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Intuition an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought
Framing the way an issue is posed
Language our spoken, written, or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning
Phoneme the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word of part of a word
Grammar a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
Syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Babbling stage beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds
One-word stage the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
Two-word stage beginning about age 2, stage where a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs
Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area
Broca's area controls language expression- directs the muscle movements involved in speech; in left frontal lobe
Wernicke's area controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; in left temporal lobe
Linguistic determination Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Created by: cfranci2