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October 14, 2011

A&P Charpter 3 and cells

what units of the body are the cells structural and functional
the site of ATP production occurs in what organelle mitochondria
cilia numerous, short-like projections used to move substances across the cell surfaces
flagella long, whip-like projections used for locomotion
what do cilia and flagella do used to move substances across cell surfaces and locomotion
where are the chromosomes contained nucleus(controls cell function)
the forcing of water and solutes through a plasma membrane by blood pressure is called filtration
the movement of molcules through a plasma membrane by carrier protein AND expenditure of energy by the cell is called ATP
the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration WITHOUT an expenditure of energy is diffusion. T or F true
the diffusion of water is called osmosis
in osmosis, the water moves from the _________ solution to the ____________ solution hypotonic; hypertonic
what is the largest organelle in the cell(found in the center of the cell) nucleus
what are the most important structures in the nucleus chromosomes
what are chromosomes made of DNA and protein
what in the chromosomes contains coded instructions that control the functions of the cell DNA
what is a functional protein and what do they do in the body antibodies provide immunity enzymes speed up chemical reactions in the body
mitotic cell division replication of parent cells/ enables growth and repair
meiotic cell division only with sex chromosomes/ produces four haploid daughter cells
movement of water without ATP is called osmosis
the movement of MOLECULES from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is called diffusion
what structure of the cell controls movement of materials into and out of the cell plasma membrane
end product of cellular respiration ATP(energy)
what is cellular respiration the process that breaks down nutrients to release energy held in their chemical bonds
hypertonic low water/ high solutes(shrink cell)
hypotonic high water/ low solutes(swells cell)
isotonic same concentration of solutes and water
enzymes functional proteins. speed up the chemical reactions in the body
element substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances
the three most abundant elements composing the body are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon
the three types of subatomic particles make up an atom protons neutrons elctrons
the smallest unit of an element with the characteristics of that element is an atom
negatively charged particles in an atom are electrons
positively charged particles in an atom are protons
what subatomic particles of an atom carries no electrical charge neutrons
a substance formed by a combination of two or more elements in a fixed ratio is a chemical compound
the most abundant inorganic compound in the body is water
a chemical reasction in which a complex molecule is broken down into simpler molecules is a decomposition reaction
what is a synthesis reaction simple substance combine to form a more complex substance
what is decomposition reaction a complex substance is broken down into simpler substances
organic molecules are distinguished by containing what element or elements (this element forms the "backbone" of organic compounds) carbon and hydrogen and usually contain oxygen
inorganic molecules are distinguishedby containing what elements cotain EITHER carbon or hydrogen. the DO NOT contain both
the SOLVENT in which the chemical reaction of life occur is water
the pH of a substance where the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are equal is have a pH of 7. neither acid or base
the pH range of acid is 0-7
the pH range of a base is 7-14
buffer a chemical or a combination of chemicals that either picks up excess H ot releases H to keep the pH of a solution rather constant
the class of organic compounds that are the primary source of a nutrient energy for the body is carbohydrates
glucose, fructose, abd galactose are monosacchorides
maltose, sucrose, and lactose are disacchorides
define and describe polysacchorides is formed by the chemical combination of many monosacchoride units
the storage form of carbohydrates in the body is glycogen
the form os carbohydrates transported in the blood is glucose
triglycerides phospholides and steroids belong to the class of compounds known as lipids
a molecule composed of glycerol and three fatty acids is a triglycerides
excess nutrients are usually stroed in the bodyas triglcerides (fat)
sex hormones and cholesterol are examples of a class of lipids known as steroids
the class of lipids forming a major part of cell membranes is phospholipids
the steroid that tends to be deposited in arterial walls when it is excessively abundant in blood is cholesterol
the class of organic compounds that are formed of amino acids is proteins
enzymes functional protiens. critical role in all metobolic reactions speed up chemical reactions in cells
DNA and RNA are examples of large molecules calles nucleic acids
the building units of a nucleic acid are nucleotides
the nucleic acid composed of two twisted stands of nucleotides is DNA
the nucleic acid composed of a single strand of nuceotides RNA
energy for immediate cellular use is provided by ATP
the heredity information of chromosomes is encoded in DNA
what is ATP adenosine triphoshate
MORE hydrogen ions mean what in the pH scale the lower pH or ACIDIC the solution is
LESS hydrogen ions means what in the pH scale the lower the pH or more ALKALINE (BASIC) the solution is
active transport movement of a substnce through the plasma membrane requiring the expediture of energy by the cell
passive transport movement of substance through a plasma membrane without the expenditure of energy by the cell
osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
diffusion passive movement of molucules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
filtration the forcing of small molecules through the membrane by hydrostatic pressure
phagocytosis the process with cells ingulf particles
exocytosis exo=outside extrusion of substances by evagination of the plasma membrane
endocytosis end=inside cyt=cell sis=condition engulfing substances by invagination of the plasma membrane
pinocytosis the process by which the cells ingulf liquids
cellular respirtaion breakdown of organtic nutritents, which releases energy to form ATP
matter anything that has a weight and occupies weight
electrolyte a substance that ionizes when dissolved in water
nucleic acid a compound whose molecules are composed of a seris of nucleotides: either DNA or RNA
Created by: bjbert