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CUI C7 Fund Quiz 4

Vocab for Ch 6, 25, 35, 37-38, 42-44, 49

active strategies of health promotion Activities that depend on the client being motivated to adopt a specific health program.
acute illness Illness characterized by symptoms that are of relatively short duration, are usually severe, and affect the functioning of the client in all dimensions.
chronic illness Illness that persists over a long period of time and affects physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual functioning.
health A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
health behavior change Five stages of change from no intention to change (precontemplation) to maintaining a changed behavior (maintenance stage).
health behaviors Activities through which a person maintains, attains, or regains good health and prevents illness.
health belief model Conceptual framework that predicts a person's health behavior as an expression of personal health beliefs.
health promotion The concept of motivating people to seek ways of decreasing the incidence and minimizing the results of illness or disability.
holistic health model This model attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health. The model focuses on the all dimensions of the client, not just a physiological dimension, as important aspects of physical wellness.
illness Abnormal process in which any aspect of a person's functioning is diminished or impaired as compared with the previous condition.
illness behavior Ways in which people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the health care system.
illness prevention Health education programs or activities directed toward protecting clients from threats or potential threats to health and toward minimizing risk factors.
passive strategies of health promotion Activities that involve the client as the recipient of actions by health care professionals.
risk factor Any internal or external variable that makes a person or group more vulnerable to illness or an unhealthy event.
secondary prevention Activities directed toward early diagnosis and prompt intervention, thereby lessening the severity of a condition and enabling the client to return to the highest level of health at the earliest possible point.
primary prevention True prevention; precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to clients who are considered physically and emotionally healthy
tertiary prevention Occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible.
malpractice Injurious or unprofessional actions that harm another.
affective learning Acquisition of behaviors involved in expressing feelings in attitudes, appreciations, and values.
analogies Comparisons made between things otherwise unalike.
cognitive learning Acquisition of intellectual skills that encompass behaviors such as thinking, understanding, and evaluating.
compliance Person's fulfillment of the prescribed course of treatment.
functional illiteracy Inability to read or comprehend above a fifth-grade level.
learning Acquisition of new knowledge and skills as a result of reinforcement, practice, and experience.
learning objective Written statements that describe the knowledge or skill a teacher expects an individual to gain following a learning activity.
motivation Internal impulse that causes a person to take action.
psychomotor learning Acquisition of ability to perform motor skills.
reinforcement Provision of a contingent response to a learner's behavior that increases the probability of the behavior recurring.
return demonstrations Demonstrations performed by the client after he or she has first observed the teacher and then practiced the skill in mock or real situations.
self-efficacy Term that refers to a person's perceived ability to successfully complete a task.
teaching Implementation method used to present correct principles, procedures, and techniques of health care.
absorption Passage of substances across and into tissues (e.g., intestinal and parenteral absorption).
adverse effects A severe response to medication. For example, a client may become comatose when a drug is ingested.
anaphylactic reactions Reactions characterized by sudden constriction of bronchiolar muscles, edema of the pharynx and larynx, and severe wheezing and shortness of breath.
biotransformation Change that occurs under the influence of enzymes that detoxify, degrade, and remove biologically active chemicals.
buccal Of or pertaining to the inside of the cheek or the gum next to the cheek.
concentration (concentrate) Substance, particularly a liquid, that has been strengthened and reduced in volume through evaporation or other means.
idiosyncratic reaction Individual sensitivities to drug effects; caused by inherited or other bodily constitution factors.
infusion Introduction of a substance such as a fluid, drug, electrolyte, or nutrient directly into a vein by means of gravity flow.
inhalation To breathe in or draw in with the breath.
injection Act of forcing a liquid into the body by means of a needle and syringe.
instillation Procedure in which a fluid is slowly introduced into a cavity or passage of the body (e.g., rectum) and allowed to remain for a specific length of time before being withdrawn or drained.
intraarticular Within a joint.
intracardiac Within the myocardium.
intradermal (ID) Within the dermis of the skin.
intramuscular (IM) Tissue within the interior of a muscle.
intraocular Eye medication delivery involving inserting a medication, similar to a contact lens, into a client's eye.
intravenous (IV) Pertaining to the inside of a vein.
irrigation Process of washing out a body cavity or wounded area with a stream of fluid.
medication allergy Severe or mild reaction to medication.
medication error Any event that could cause or lead to a client receiving inappropriate medication therapy or failing to receive appropriate medication therapy.
metered-dose inhaler (MDI) Inhaler designed to produce local effects such as bronchodilatation.
metric system Decimal system of measurement.
narcotic Drug substance, either derived from opium or produced synthetically, that alters perception of pain and that with repeated use may result in physical and psychological dependence.
ophthalmic Medications for eye conditions such as glaucoma.
parenteral administration Injecting a medication into body tissues.
peak concentration Highest serum concentration.
prescriptions Written by the prescriber for clients who are to take medications outside the hospital.
serum half-life Time needed for excretion processes to lower the serum drug concentration by half.
side effects Any reaction or consequence that results from medication or therapy.
subcutaneous (Sub-Q) Injection into tissues just below the dermis of the skin.
sublingual Route of medication administration in which the medication is placed underneath the client's tongue.
synergistic effect When two drugs act synergistically, the effect of the two drugs combined is greater than the effect that would be expected if the individual effects of the two drugs acting alone were added together.
therapeutic effects Desired benefits of a medication, treatment, or procedure.
toxic effects Resulting from an excess amount of medication in a client's blood, these effects may be caused by the excessive use of medication, overdose, impaired excretion, or idiosyncratic reaction to the medication itself.
verbal order Physician's order given to the nurse, usually over the telephone.
medication interaction One medication alters the action of another.
medication reconciliation Comparison of two medication lists to ensure that the nurse is aware of all medications prescribed for a client
crutch gait Gait assumed by a person on crutches by alternately bearing weight on one or both legs and on the crutches.
antagonistic muscles Group of muscles that work together to bring about movement at a joint.
antigravity muscles Muscles involved with joint stabilization. These muscles continually oppose the effect of gravity on the body and permit a person to maintain an upright or sitting posture.
center of gravity Midpoint or center of the weight of a body or object.
foot board Board placed perpendicular to the mattress and parallel to and touching the plantar surface of the client's foot to maintain dorsiflexion of the feet.
proprioception Sensation achieved through stimuli from within the body regarding spatial position and muscular activity.
synergistic muscles Muscles that contract together to accomplish the same movement.
air pollution Contamination of the environmental atmosphere with substances known as pollutants, which are not normally found in the air.
Ambularm Safety device that alerts health care personnel that a client is attempting to get up. Provides an alternative to restraints.
aura Sensation, as of light or warmth, that may precede an attack of migraine or epileptic seizure.
bioterrorism The use of biological agents to create fear and threat.
carbon monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by the combustion of carbon or organic fuels.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Federal agency responsible for the enforcement of federal regulations regarding the manufacture and distribution of food, drugs, and cosmetics to ensure protection against the sale of impure or dangerous substances.
food poisoning Toxic processes resulting from the ingestion of a food contaminated by toxic substances or by bacteria containing toxins.
immunization Process by which resistance to an infectious disease is produced or augmented. Immunity is acquired after the oral administration or injection of an antigen, which causes production of an antibody within the body.
land pollution Contamination of soil by improper disposal of radioactive or bioactive waste products.
noise pollution Noise level in an environment at the level that it becomes uncomfortable to the inhabitants.
poison Any substance that impairs health or destroys life when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the body in relatively small amounts.
pollutant Harmful chemical or waste material discharged into the water or atmosphere.
relative humidity Amount of moisture in the air as compared with the maximum amount that the air could contain at the same temperature.
restraint Device to aid in the immobilization of a client or a client's extremity.
seizure Brief, temporary malfunctions of nerve cells in the brain may result in seizure activity. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure is characterized by loss of consciousness, tonicity (rigidity), and clonicity (jerking).
seizure precautions Measures that protect the client from injury during a seizure.
status epilepticus Medical emergency whereby a person has continual seizures without interruption.
water pollution Contamination of lakes, rivers, and streams by industrial pollutants.
bed check Alarm system that indicates when a client has exited their bed; the alarm sounds when the pressure is relieved from the Sensormat in their bed.
biological clocks Cyclical nature of body functions; functions controlled from within the body as synchronized with environmental factors: same meaning as biorhythm.
spontaneous pain Pain that is unpredictable and not associated with any activity or event.
cataplexy Condition characterized by sudden muscular weakness and loss of muscle tone.
circadian rhythm The 24-hour day-night cycle also known as diurnal; pattern based on repetition of certain physiological phenomena within a 24-hour cycle.
dorsal rhizotomy Surgical cutting of the dorsal or posterior nerve roots as they enter the spinal cord.
excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) Most common complaint of people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
hypersomnolence Excessive sleepiness.
hypnotics Class of drugs that cause insensibility to pain and induce sleep.
insomnia Condition characterized by chronic inability to sleep or remain asleep through the night.
narcolepsy Syndrome involving sudden sleep attacks that a person cannot inhibit; uncontrollable desire to sleep may occur several times during a day.
nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep Occurs during the first four stages of normal sleep.
polysomnogram Monitoring device that involves placement of electrodes on the scalp, face, chin, and legs to measure brain waves, eye movements, and muscle activity; used to diagnose sleep disorders.
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep Stage of sleep in which dreaming and rapid eye movements are prominent; important for mental restoration.
sedative Medication that produces a calming effect by decreasing functional activity, diminishing irritability, and allaying excitement.
sleep State marked by reduced consciousness, diminished activity of the skeletal muscles, and depressed metabolism.
sleep apnea Cessation of breathing for a time during sleep.
sleep deprivation Condition resulting from a decrease in the amount, quality, and consistency of sleep.
sleep hygiene Poor habits or practices that a client uses that are associated with sleep.
acupressure Therapeutic technique of applying digital pressure in a specified way on designated points on the body to relieve pain, produce anesthesia, or regulate body function.
acute pain Follows acute injury, disease, or surgical intervention and has a rapid onset; varies in intensity, and lasts for a brief time, usually less than 6 months.
addiction A 1*, chronic, neuro-bio disease, w/ genetic, psychosocial, and enviro factors. It is characterized by behaviors that include 1 or > of: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, use despite harm, and craving.
breakthrough pain Pain that extends beyond treated steady chronic pain.
chronic pain Pain that lasts longer than anticipated (usually over 6 months), may not have an identifiable cause, and may lead to great personal suffering. Chronic pain may be noncancerous (nonmalignant) or cancerous.
cutaneous stimulation Stimulation of a person's skin to prevent or reduce pain perception. A massage, warm bath, application of liniment, hot and cold therapies, and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation are some ways to reduce pain perception.
drug tolerance A state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in diminution of one or more of the drug's effects over time.
epidural space Where the epidural analgesia is administered.
guided imagery Method of pain control in which the client creates a mental image, concentrates on that image, and gradually becomes less aware of pain.
idiopathic pain Pain in the absence of an identifiable physical or psychological cause or pain perceived as excessive for the extent of organic pathological condition.
modulation Alteration in the magnitude or any variation in the duration of an electrical current.
nociceptor Somatic and visceral free nerve endings of thinly myelinated and unmyelinated fibers; these fibers usually react to tissue injury but may also be excited by endogenous chemical substances.
nutrients Foods that contain elements necessary for body function, including water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
opioid Pertaining to natural and synthetic chemicals that have opium-like effects although they are not derived from opium.
pain "An unpleasant, subjective sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage." (International Association for the Study of Pain, 1979)
pain threshold The point at which a person feels pain.
pain tolerance The level of pain that a person is willing to put up with.
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) Drug delivery system that allows clients to self-administer analgesic medications as desired.
physical dependence A state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level or the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist.
placebo Inert substance with no active ingredient.
prostaglandins Potent hormonelike substances that act in exceedingly low doses on target organs; they can be used to treat asthma and gastric hyperacidity.
pruritus Symptom of itching.
pseudoaddiction Patient behaviors (drug seeking) that may occur when pain is undertreated.
pseudotolerance The need to increase opioid dose for reasons other than opioid tolerance: progression of disease, onset of new disorder, increased physical activity, lack of adherence, change in opioid formulation, drug-drug interaction, drug-food interaction.
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) Technique in which a battery-powered device blocks pain impulses from reaching the spinal cord by delivering weak electrical pulses directly to the skin's surface.
transduction Process that begins in the periphery when a pain-producing stimulus sends an impulse across a peripheral nerve fiber.
transmission Transfer or conveyance of a thing or condition.
analgesics Medications that provide pain relief
epidural anesthesia Pain management via the epidural space
perineural infusion An unsutured catheter from a surgical wound placed near a nerve or groups of nerves connects to a pump containing a local anesthetic
amino acids Building blocks that construct proteins; the end products of protein digestion.
anabolism Constructive metabolism characterized by conversion of simple substances into more complex compounds of living matter.
anorexia Condition in which ill or debilitated clients have poor appetites.
anorexia nervosa Disease characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea, emotional disturbance concerning body image, and an abnormal fear of becoming obese.
body mass index (BMI) Measurement of weight, corrected for height, which serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships.
bulimia nervosa Insatiable craving for fond, often resulting in episodes of continuous eating that are followed by purging, depression, and self-deprivation.
carbohydrate Dietary classification of food such as sugars, starches, cellulose, and gum.
catabolism Complex metabolic process in which energy is liberated for use in work, energy, storage, or heat production by oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; carbon dioxide and water, as well as energy, are produced.
daily values Set of dietary standards for eight nutrients and food categories.
dietary reference intakes (DRIs) Format presenting a range of acceptable intake in place of absolute values.
dysphagia Difficulty swallowing.
enteral nutrition (EN) Provision of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract when the client cannot ingest, chew, or swallow food but can digest and absorb nutrients.
enzymes Proteins produced by living cells that catalyze chemical reactions in organic matter.
fat-soluble vitamins Organic compounds essential for normal physiological and metabolic functioning; classified on the basis of their fat solubility.
fatty acids Nutrients composed of chains of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms with an acid group on one end of the chain and a methyl group at the other.
gluconeogenesis Formation of glucose or glycogen from substances that are not carbohydrates, such as proteins or lipids.
glycogenesis Anabolism of glucose into glycogen for storage.
glycogenolysis Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, and water.
hypervitaminosis Condition caused by excessive intake of a vitamin; less likely to occur with water-soluble vitamins.
ideal body weight (IBW) Estimate of what a person should weigh.
ketone Organic chemical compound characterized by having in its structure a carbonyl, or keto, group, =CO, attached to two alkyl groups.
lipid Any of the free fatty acid fractions in the blood.
lipid emulsions Soybean- or safflower-oil-based solutions that are isotonic and that may be infused with amino acid and dextrose solution through a central or peripheral line.
macromineral Minerals classified as having a daily requirement of 100 mg or more.
malabsorption Set of symptoms resulting from disorders in the intestinal absorption of nutrients; characterized by anorexia, weight loss, bloating of the abdomen, and muscle cramps.
medical nutrition therapy (MNT) Use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition.
metabolism Aggregate of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms, resulting in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wastes, and other functions concerned with the distribution of nutrients in the blood after digestion.
minerals Inorganic elements essential to the body because of their role as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
monosaturated (fatty acids) Fatty acids that have one carbon bond.
nitrogen balance Relationship between the nitrogen taken into the body, usually as food, and the nitrogen excreted from the body in urine and feces. Most of the body's nitrogen is incorporated into protein.
nutrient density Proportion of essential nutrients to the number of calories of a specific food.
parenteral nutrition (PN) Administration of nutrition into the vascular system.
polyunsaturated (fatty acids) Fatty acids that have two or more carbon double bonds.
resting energy expenditure (REE) Measurement that accounts for BMR plus energy to digest meals and perform mild activity.
saccharide Within carbohydrates, a classification of sugars.
saturated (fatty acids) Fatty acids in which each carbon in the chain has an attached hydrogen atom.
simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides and disaccharides, found primarily in sugars.
trace elements Minerals when less than 100 mg is needed daily; microminerals.
triglycerides Circulate in the blood and are made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
unsaturated (fatty acids) Fatty acids in which an unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached and the carbon atoms attach to each other with a double bond.
vegetarianism Consumption of a diet consisting predominantly of plant foods.
vitamins Organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiological and metabolic functioning of the body. With few exceptions, vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet or dietary supplements.
water-soluble vitamins Vitamins that cannot be stored in the body and must be provided in the daily food intake, such as vitamin C and B complex.
anthopometry A measurement system of the size and makeup of the body, including height and weight, BMI and other objective data showing the body's construction.
dispensable amino acids Amino acids that the body synthesizes
indispensible amino acids Amino acids that the body cannot synthesize
kilocalorie (kcal) Measurement of heat that is equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food
Association of Operating Room Nurses (AORN) Organization formed in 1956 to gain knowledge of surgical principles and explore surgical methods to improve nursing care of surgical patients.
auditory Related to or experienced through the sense of hearing.
circulating nurse Assistant to the scrub nurse and surgeon whose role is to provide necessary supplies, dispose of soiled instruments and supplies, and keep an accurate count of instruments, needles, and sponges used.
conductive hearing loss Form of hearing loss in which sound is inadequately conducted through the external or middle ear to the sensorineural apparatus of the inner ear.
expressive aphasia Inability to name common objects or to express simple ideas in words or writing.
general anesthesia Intravenous or inhaled medications that cause the client to lose all sensation and consciousness.
gustatory Pertaining to the sense of taste.
hyperesthesia Extreme sensitivity of one of the body's sense organs, such as the pain or touch receptors in the skin.
kinesthetic A sense that enables a person to be aware of the position and movement of body parts without seeing them.
nosocomial infection Infection acquired during hospitalization or during a stay in a health care facility.
pharmacokinetics Study of how drugs enter the body, reach their site of action, are metabolized, and exit from the body.
polypharmacy Use of a number of different drugs by a patient who may have one or several health problems.
proprioceptive The ability to respond to stimuli originating from within the body regarding spatial position or movement.
receptive aphasia Abnormal neurological condition in which language function is defective because of an injury to certain areas of the cerebral cortex; specifically, language is not understood.
refractive error Defect in the ability of the lens of the eye to focus light, such as occurs in nearsightedness and farsightedness.
scrub nurse Registered nurse or operating room technician who assists surgeons during operations.
sensory deficit Defect in the function of one or more of the senses, resulting in visual, auditory, or olfactory impairments.
sensory deprivation State in which stimulation to one or more of the senses is lacking, resulting in impaired sensory perception.
sensory overload Condition in which the central nervous system receives much more auditory, visual, or other environmental stimuli per time frame than it can process effectively.
stereognosis Ability to recognize objects by the sense of touch.
strabismus Abnormal ocular condition in which the eyes are crossed.
tactile Relating to the sense of touch.
delusion False or pathologic belief
illusion a distortion of a sensory perception
primary intention Primary union of the edges of a wound that progresses to complete scar formation without granulation.
activities of daily living (ADLs) Activities usually performed in the course of a normal day in the client's life, such as eating, dressing, bathing, brushing the teeth, and grooming.
Nurse Practice Acts Statutes enacted by the legislature of any state that delineate the legal scope of the practice of nursing within the geographical boundaries of the jurisdiction.
environment Physical circumstances in which a person works or lives; can increase the likelihood that certain illnesses will occur (e.g. some kinds of cancer and other diseases are more likely to develop when people live near toxic waste sites, etc).
perception Person's mental image or concept of elements in the environment, including information gained through the senses.
hypothermia Abnormal lowering of body temperature below 95° F (35° C), usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold.
local anesthesia Loss of sensation at the desired site of action.
pathogen Any microorganism capable of producing disease.
basal metabolic rate (BMR) Amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions.
solution Mixture of one or more substances dissolved in another substance. The molecules of each of the substances disperse homogeneously and do not change chemically. A solution may be a liquid, gas, or solid.
relaxation Relief from work or stress that leaves one feeling relaxed or less tense.
biofeedback Behavioral therapy that involves giving individuals information about physiological responses (such as blood pressure or tension) and ways to exercise voluntary control over those responses.
aphasia Neurological disorder influencing the production and understanding of language.
activity tolerance Type and amount of exercise or work that a person is able to perform.
cartilage Nonvascular, supporting connective tissue located mainly in the joints and in the thorax, trachea, larynx, nose, and ear.
cartilaginous joint Slightly moveable, highly elastic cartilage that unites bony surfaces.
exercise Performance of any physical activity for the purpose of conditioning the body, improving health, maintaining fitness, or as a therapeutic measure.
fibrous joint Tough layer of fibrous connective tissue that binds bones firmly together.
gait Manner or style of walking, including rhythm, cadence, and speed.
hemiparesis Muscular weakness of one half of the body.
hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the body.
immobility Inability to move about freely; caused by any condition in which movement is impaired or therapeutically restricted.
isometric contraction Increased muscle tension without muscle shortening.
isotonic contraction Increased muscle tension resulting in muscle contraction and muscle shortening.
joint Connection between bones; classified according to structure and degree of mobility.
ligament White, shiny, flexible band of fibrous tissues binding joints together and connecting various bones and cartilage.
mobility Person's ability to move about freely.
muscle tone Normal state of balanced muscle tension.
posture Position of the body in relation to the surrounding space.
range of motion (ROM) Range of movement of a joint, from maximum extension to maximum flexion, as measured in degrees of a circle.
synovial joints True and freely moveable joints in which contiguous bony surfaces are covered by articular cartilage and are connected by ligaments lined with a synovial membrane.
tendons White, glistening, strong, flexible, and inelastic fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone.
rest Feeling of mental relaxation and freedom from anxiety; physical calm.
nocturia Urination at night; can be a symptom of renal disease or may occur in persons who drink excessive amounts of fluids before bedtime.
fiber Nutrient that contains cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin; sources are mainly fruits and vegetables.
chyme Viscous, semifluid contents of the stomach present during digestion of a meal that eventually pass into the intestines.
neurotransmitter Chemical that transfers an electrical impulse from the nerve fiber to the muscle fiber.
regional anesthesia Loss of sensation in an area of the body supplied by sensory nerve pathways.
olfactory Pertaining to the sense of smell.
otolaryngologist Medical doctor whose practice is limited to diseases, conditions, and trauma to the ears.
ototoxic Having a harmful effect on the eighth cranial (auditory) nerve or the organs of hearing and balance.
dehiscence Separation of a wound's edges that reveals underlying tissues.
peristalsis Coordinated, rhythmic, serial contractions of smooth muscle that force food through the digestive tract.
friction Effect of rubbing or the resistance that a moving body meets from the surface on which it moves; a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement.
Created by: ultraRNner