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Micro - Exam 2

Stack #72294

metabolism all chemical reactions in a cell; revolves around ENERGY (required to perfrom all functions)
anabolism [synthesis] building up something complex from simple parts; requires E
catabolism [analysis] breakdown of something complex into its simple parts; releases E
ATP adenosine triphosphate: [adenosin]-PO4~PO4~PO4
Oxidation loss of electrons; gains O2 and loses H; releases E
Reduction gain of electrons; loses O2 and gains H; requires E
Coenzymes [Oxidized --> Reduced] (1) NAD+ --> NADH (2) FAD --> FADH2 (3) NADP --> NADPH
types of metabolism (1) Glycolysis (2) Kreb's Cycle (3) Electron Transport Chain (4) Fermentation
glucose an organic sugar that requires enzymes to breakdown - goes through GLYCOLYSIS
GLYCOLYSIS [aka- Embden-Meyerhof Pathway] 6 Carbon --> 2 3Carbon (Pyruvic Acid)
changes during GLYCOLYSIS [no O2 required] (1) 2ATP --> 2ADP + PO4 + E (2) 4ADP + PO4 + E --> 4ATP (3) NAD+ --> NADH [reduced - gain e- in H]
KREB'S CYCLE pyruvic acid from glycolysis not ready for cycle so it needs to change; some parts require O2; many different reactions occuring; each step reqires an enzyme
changes in KREB'S CYCLE (1) lose CO2 (2) NAD+ --> NADH (3) gains CoEnzyme A }= Acetyl-CoA
benefit of KREB'S CYCLE (1) gains ATP (2) 3NAD+ (gains electron) --> 3NADH (3) FAD (gains electron) --> FADH2
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN [aka-Respiration] found in prokaryotic cells; does not vary between species; series of reactions [reductions/oxidations];
changes in ETC BEGINNING: NADH --> NAD+ + H+ (oxidized) H+ is picked up by first compaound in chain nd yields 3 ATP MIDDLE: FADH2 --> FAD + H+ (oxidizd) yields 2 ATP
final electron acceptors aerobic: O2 --> H2O anaerobic: inorganic molecule (not O2) - NO3 --> NH3; CO3 --> CH4; SO4 --> H2S
FERMENTATION can occur instead of ETC after creation of Pyruvic Acid (no Acetyl-CoA); product is dependent on what the enzyme can make based on the needs of the cell [ glucose --> pyruvic acid --> ethyl alcohol+CO2; lactic acid; isopropylalc; propionic acid]
RESPIRATION v. fermentation (1) glycolysis (2) anaerobic = no O2; aerobic = O2 (3) kreb's cycle (4) ETC (5) lots of E (6) inorganic end product
respiration v. FERMENTATION (1) glycolysis (2) no O2 (3) no kreb's cycle (4) no ETC (5) not much E (6) organic end product
Phosphorylation adding PO4 to something using a high E bond (ex - ADP + PO4 + E --> ATP)
phosphorylation: PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION use light E to make chemical E
phosphorylation: SUBSTRATE LEVEL when a substrate is broken down and ATP in produced; glycolysis - kreb's cycle - fermentation
phosphorylation: OXIDATIVE LEVEL the process of being reduced and oxidized but never broken down; ETC
genetics the science of heredity
gene segment of DNA which codes for a single product (usually a protein)
chromosome a structure that carries genes
DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (directional up and down on opposing DNA stands)
genetic bases (1) Adenine (2) Thymine (3) Guanine (4) Cytosine
Replication DNA makes an exact copy of itself: (1) DNA unzips (2)each strand is used as a template to make a new strand (3) strands attach directionally according to the deoxyribose
replication fork where DNA splits between two strands
leading strand made first as DNA unzips; faster
lagging strand made in opposite direction; slower
RNA RiboNucleic Acid
DNA v. rna (1) deoxyribose [sugar] (2) double stranded (3) bases: G C A T (4) only 1 type
dna v RNA (1) ribose [sugar] (2) single stranded (3) bases: G C A U [uracil] (4) 3 types
3 types of RNA (1) messenger [mRNA] (2) transfer [tRNA] (3) ribosomal [rRNA]
making a protein: transcription DNA unzips - one strand in a template used to make mRNA
making a protein: translation (1)mRNA travels to ribose[pro=cytoplasm;eu=ER](2)ribose reads a codon(3)tRNA brings aa with correct anticodon;drops aa and floats away(4)next codon read by ribose(5)tRNA and anticodon attach,drop aa,float away(6)aa attach and make protein(7)nonsense condo
codon 3 bases together that have a meaning for an amino acid; more than 1 codon per amino acid (64 different combinations); 1 start = AUG [methionine] 3 stop = nonsense codons
anticodon 3 bases opposite bases on codon
mutation any change in the order of bases in DNA
ames test purpose discover if something is carcinogenic
carcinogenic cancer causing
mutogenic mutation causing
ames test procedure 1 use mutated salmonella(needs particular nutrient) 2 make agar media without needed nutrient 3 smear on salmonella 4 place test substance on plate, incubate 5 if colonies grew=substance diffused onto agar and changed salmonella back to premutated state
ames test conclusion if substance can change salmonella, it is possible it could change human cells and cause cancer (huge leap of faith - cant be 100% sure)
how prokaryotes get new DNA; TRANSFORMATION breakdown of bacteria leaves intacts DNA; comptetent bacteria picks up naked DNA
how prokaryotes get new DNA: TRANSDUCTION virus carries host cell DNA to new host
how prokaryotes get new DNA: CONJUGATION 2 cells (same genus, species) - cell with pilus attaches to cell with no pilus, DNA passes through pilus
how prokaryotes get new DNA: PLASMIDS (small circle of DNA, extrachromosomal) can happen between cells of different genus, species; travels from cell with pilus to cell with no pilus; duplicates itself and leaves copy with host
Created by: lcnelson