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OIT/OHSU - Pharm

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
What is a drug? A chemical used to diagnose, treat, or prevent a disease.
What are the main sources of drugs? Plants,Animals,Bacteria, Minerals, Synthetic, and genetic engineering.
What is the Chemical, Generic, Offical, and Trade name of Tyenol? Chemical - N-acetyl-para-amonophel Generic - acetaminophren Official - acetaminophren USP Trade (brand) - Tylenol
What the the schedules of drugs? Schedule 1 throught 5.
What is a schedule 1 drug? Drugs with a high abuse potential and no accecpted medical use
What is a schedule 2 drug? Drugs with a high abuse potential and accecpted medical use
What is a schedule 3 drug? Drugs with a moderate abuse potential and no accecpted medical use
What is a schedule 4 drug? Drugs with a low abuse potential and no accecpted medical use
What is a schedule 5 drug? Drugs with a limited abuse potential and no accecpted medical use
Name the 6 rights of medications Right patient, right medication, right dose, right route, right time, right documentation.
What is Pharamacokinetics? The study of drug movement into, through, and out of the body. (What the body does to the drug)
What is Pharamacodynamics? The study of drug effects on the body. (What the drug does to the body)
What are the 4 basic properties of pharamacokinetics? Absorption • Distribution • Metabolism • Excretion
In Pharamacokinetics, what is Absorption? The movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood stream.
The _____ of adsorption influences how soon effects will begin. Rate
The _____ of adsorption influences how intense the effects will be. Amount
What are the 2 major routes to administer a drug? paraenteral or enteral
What are some of the barriers to oral administration? Barriers to absorption Epithelial cells that line the GI tract Capillary walls • Absorption pattern Highly variable
What are some of the advantages of oral administration? • Convenient, easy • Inexpensive administration • Safe (compared to injection) • Reversible (compared to injection)
What are some of the disavantages to oral administration • Highly variable • Certain drugs may be inactivated • Patient must be conscious and cooperative • May cause irritation to GI tract
Why might a tablet of the same drug from two different manufacturers differ in onset or intensity? The filler or coating may be different by each manufacture. This can effect the absorption rate and amount of the drug.
What is an enteric coated drug? Designed to pass through the stomach and be dissolved in the intestines.
What is a sustained release preparation? Capsules filled with spheres that release the drug at variable rates
what are the 3 principle parenteral routes? intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous
What is a barrier to IV administration? None. :)
What is the Absorption pattern of IV administration? Instanteous and complete.
What are some of the advantages to IV administration? • Rapid onset • Precise control • Able to use large amounts of fluid allowing administration of poorly soluble or irritant drugs.
What are some of the disadvantages to IV administration? • Expensive, difficult, inconvenient • Irreversible • May cause fluid overload • Risk of phlebitis or embolism
What is an EJ IV? External Jugular Vein IV.
What are some barriers to an IM and SQ drug administration? Barriers to absorption Capillary wall • Absorption pattern determined by: Water solubility of drug Blood flow to injection site
Place in order which sire has the fastest absorption rate. IO, SUB-Q, IM, and IV. IO and IV equal, IM, Sub-Q.
What are the advantages of an IM or Sub-Q administration? • Poorly soluble drugs can be used (unlike I.V.) • Depot preparations can provide long term therapeutic effects
what are some of the Disadvantages of a IM or SUB-Q Administration? Painful or (compared to oral) inconvient
When is a handheld IO going to be used? Peds. Adult bony structures are harder to penetrate.
What medications (Trade name and generic) is typically going to be administrated Sublingual? Narcon - naloxone Nitro - nitroglycerin
Will a lipid soluble drug cross the cell membrane? Yes. The cell membrane is a phospholipid later.
Acid drugs in acidic fluid are typically ionized or un-ionized? un-ionized
Basic (no not easy)drugs in a basic fluid are typically ionized or un-ionized? un-ionized
In what part of the digestive tract will an acidic drug be more readly absorbed? In the stomach and enterance of duodenum before the chyme is rendered basic by pancreatic jucies (sodium bicarbonate)
In what part of the digestive tract will a basic drug be absorbed? Typically in the small and large intestine.
In pharamacokinetics what is distribution? The movement of a drug through the body from the moment of absorption until it reaches the target tissue
What 3 main factors define distribution? • Blood flow to the target tissue • The ability of the drug to exit the vascular system at the target • The ability of the drug to affect the target cell
What are three situations which alter the drug’s ability to exit the vascular system: • Protein binding • Blood brain barrier • Placental drug transfer
What is protein binding? When the drug is chemically or electronically attrached to the proteins in the blood stream.
How does the BBB affect the transfer of drug? Tight junctions in the capillary membranes forcing the drugs to move through them rather then between them. Also has a transport mechanism to pump the drugs back out.
Where does placental drug transfre take place? In the placenta. (Duh)
Will an Ionic drug cross the placental membrane? No Ionic and polar drugs do not.
What is cell metabolism? • Drug metabolism is the enzymatic alteration of drug structure
What is biotransformation? A condition of beyond or change, throwing or casting away.
What is the first pass effect? Drug metabolism that occurs between the oral ingestion, small intestines, and liver. IE a bigger dose is needed to reach the same potentcy as an IV administration.
In pharamokienisis what is excretion? • The removal of drugs and drug metabolites from the body.
Where does most drug excretion occur? Kidney
What are the 6 excretion routes? Kidneys (liquid) Bile (feces) Sweat Saliva Breast milk Expired air.
What is MEC? Minumum effective concentration. Level at with therapeutic effects occur.
What is the therapeutic range? The range of plasma drug levels between minimum effective concentration and toxic concentration.
What is toxic concentration? Hmmm toxic what could that mean..... Ahh the slides... Dead cows....
What is Pharamacodynamics The study of the biochemical and physiological effects and the molecular mechanisms by which these effects are produced (what the drugs do to the body)
3 general ways that drugs produce their effects. • Change the physical properties of a part of the body Example: mannitol • Chemically combine with other substances Example: antacids • Binding to a receptor site Example: many, many drugs; by far the most common way
What is a drug receptor? • A group of macromolecules through which drugs act • Comprised of the body’s own receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, or other regulatory molecules
What are the 4 primary receptor families? • Cell membrane-embedded enzymes • Ligand-gated ion channels • G protein coupled receptor systems • Nuclear receptors
What is a cell membrane embedded enzyme and what is an common example of this? • Spans the cell membrane with the binding site outside and the catalytic site inside • Response to activation occurs in seconds • Example: receptor for insulin
What is a ligand ion channel and an example? • One method to regulate the flow of ions in and out of cells. Crucial for the transmission of the nerve signal across synaptic cleft • Response to activation occurs in milliseconds • Example: receptor for acetylcholine
What is a G Protein-Coupled Receptor System? • Three components: receptor, G protein, effector • Rapid response • Example: receptor for epinephrine
What is a nuclear receptor? Located within cell nucleus Drug or endogenous ligand must be able to enter cell. (lipid or transport) The ability to directly bind to DNA and regulate the expression of adjacent genes • Response delayed (hrs days) • Ex: steroid hormones
Created by: ffdesign01