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Describe the group of organisms we know as Protozoa. Eukaryotic; Unicellular; No cell wall
Protozoa are usually grouped according to their means of locomotion. Name and describe these groups. Pseudopods—false feet; Flagella—long; Cilia—short; No means of motility
In what two life stages or forms can we find Protozoa? “Troph” stage and Cyst stage
How do we get infected with Entamoeba histolytica? Ingesting cysts in contaminated food or water
What condition does Entamoeba histolytica cause? Amoebic dysentery
What symptoms might we see in someone infected with Entamoeba? Ulcers in intestinal wall, abscesses in liver
What is dysentery? Bloody diarrhea that can result in severe dehydration
How do we diagnose disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica? By its cyst stage—four nuclei with karysome in each, cigar-shaped chromatin body, perfectly spherical shape
How do we get infected with Naegleria fowleri? Found in sandy bottoms of warm waters; Gets stirred up when people jump in water; Ingested through nose
Describe the disease process and consequences of being infected with Naegleria fowleri. The organism is very invasive and when it gets high into the nasal passages, it can pass into the brain where it sets up a fatal infection called PAM (primary amoebic meningoencephalitis); Similar to bacterial meningitis symptoms; could lead to death
Who would most likely get infected with Acanthamoeba? People who wear contact lenses
What kinds of symptoms are associated with infection by Acanthamoeba? Eye infections
How can infection of Acanthamoeba be prevented? Storing and handling contact lenses appropriately
What is the “common” name for the condition caused by Trichomonas vaginalis? “ping-pong vaginitis”
Why is Trichomonas vaginalis only transmitted by intimate contact? Because it has no cyst stage and cannot survive outside its host for very long
What is the “common” name for Giardia lamblia? “backpacker’s parasite”
How do we become infected with Giardia lamblia? Drinking water without purifying it
How can you prevent infection of Giardia lamblia? Boiling water for 5-10 minutes or filtering water
What are the common symptoms of infection with Giardia lamblia? Deep, sulphur tasting burps; Abdominal discomfort, severe diarrhea, malabsorption, milk intolerance, and weight loss
How does Giardia lamblia attach to your intestinal mucosa? An ovoid, concave sucking disc occupies about three-fourths of the flat ventral surface—used to attach to intestinal mucosa
Trypanosoma species need a vector for transmission. What are the vectors for African Sleeping Sickness and Chagas Disease? African Sleep Sickness—tsetse fly; Chagas Disease—reduviid bug (“kissing bug”)
What are the general symptoms for the systemic diseases African Sleeping Sickness and Chagas Disease? Fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and central nervous system involvement leading to coma and death
What is the vector for Leishmania? Sand fly
What three types of Leishmaniasis do we find in humans? Cutaneous; Mucocutaneous; Visceral form
What “common” name do we give cases of Leishmaniasis that are seen in patients coming back from Iraq? “Baghdad boil”
How do we get infected with Balantidium coli? Fecal-oral route—consuming contaminated food and/or water
In what groups of people would Balantidium coli be most prevalent? People in U.S. mental hospitals, nursing homes, prisons; places of crowding and lack of good hygiene
Definitive host host where we find the adult organism/host where sexual reproduction occurs
Intermediate host hosts where asexual reproduction occurs and where we find developing forms of the parasite
What disease is caused by the parasite Plasmodium? Malaria
What is the genus of the vector that transmits Plasmodium? Anopheles
Name the definitive and intermediate hosts for Plasmodium. Definitive—mosquito; Intermediate—human
What does Plasmodium do in the human host once it is injected by the bite of the mosquito? Invade the liver and undergo asexual multiplication; Then invade red blood cells; Blood stream phase of infection
What causes the disease symptoms observed in Plasmodium infection? Lysis of the red cells liberates products of metabolism of the parasites and the red cells—toxic materials cause symptoms
What animal is the definitive host for Toxoplasma? Cat
How do cats get infected with Toxoplasma? By eating an infected mouse or rat
How do man, sheep, dogs, cows, and other animals get infected with Toxoplasma? Ingestion of undercooked meat of infected animal, contact with dried feces of cats (such as when cleaning litter boxes)
Why are pregnant women cautioned about cat litter boxes? The fetus can develop severe congenital defects from exposure to Toxoplasma such as retinochoroiditis, mental retardation, convulsions, blindness, and death
How do man and animals get infected with Cryptosporidium? Fecal-oral route
For whom is Cryptosporidium particularly dangerous? Immunocompromised people; people with AIDS
How must we control Cryptosporidium in our water supply? Subject water to microfiltration using filters with pores no larger than 0.2 micrometers
What stain is used to detect the oocysts of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora in fecal samples? Acid-fast stain
What are the symptoms of Cryptosporidium infection? Profuse, watery diarrhea; abdominal cramping, nausea, low-grade fever, and headache
Created by: slarmentrout