Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Pharmacology Ch 20

QuestionAnswer
chemicals that are made in an organ or gland and carried through the blood stream to another part of the body hormones
specific chemical group of hormones that have powerful effects on cell sensitization, healing and development steroids
a complicated, chronic disorder characterized by insufficient insulin production or by cellular resistance to insulin diabetes
a hormone produced by the pancreas that acts to maintain blood glucose levels within normal limits; essential for the use of glucose in cellular metabolism and for proper protein and fat metabolisml insulin
hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas; controls the use of glucose, protein, and fat in the body; lowers blood sugar by inhibiting glucose production by the liver; available as purified extracts from beef and pork pancreas (used infrequently) insulin
Insulin activates a process that helps _________ enter the cells. glucose
Insulin stimulates the liver ___________ synthesis. glycogen
Insulin is used to treat diabetes mellitus and control more severe and complicated forms of ________ diabetes. type 2
adverse effects of insulin: rebound hyperglycemia, lipodystrophy of injection site (get knots where fat breaks down), hypersensitivity, hypoglycemia
two generations of medications; act to lower blood glucose by stimulating the beta cells to relaese insulin sulfonylureas
adverse effects of sulfonylureas: hypoglycemia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric discomfort, weight gain, heartburn, weakness and numbness of extremities
reduces hepatic glucose production and increases insulin sensitivity to muscle and fat cells; also used for PCOD biguanides
biguanide medication: metformin (Glucophage)
adverse effects of biguanides: GI upsent (abdominal bloating, nausea, cramping, diarrhea, etc), metallic taste, hypoglycemia (rare)
decrease insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity by modifying several processes thiazolidinediones
thiazolidinedione medications: rosiglitazone (Avandia), pioglitazone (Actos)
adverse effects of thiazolidinediones: aggravated DM, URI, sinusitis, headache, pharyngitis, myalgia, diarrhea, back pain
stimulate insulin relase from the pancreas meglitinides
meglintinide medications: nateglinide (Starlix), repaglinide (Prandin)
adverse effects of meglitinides: URI, headache, rhinitis, bronchitis, back pain, hypoglycemia
improves glucose control in Type 2 DM incretin mimetics
incretin mimetic drugs: exenatide (Byetta); sitagliptin (Januvia)
adverse effects of incretin minetics: HA, dizziness, jitteriness, N/V, diarrhea
chemicals that are made in an organ or gland and carried through the blood stream to another part of the body hormones
specific chemical group of hormones that have powerful effects on cell sensitization, healing and development steroids
a complicated, chronic disorder characterized by insufficient insulin production or by cellular resistance to insulin diabetes
a hormone produced by the pancreas that acts to maintain blood glucose levels within normal limits; essential for the use of glucose in cellular metabolism and for proper protein and fat metabolisml insulin
hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas; controls the use of glucose, protein, and fat in the body; lowers blood sugar by inhibiting glucose production by the liver; available as purified extracts from beef and pork pancreas (used infrequently) insulin
Insulin activates a process that helps _________ enter the cells. glucose
Insulin stimulates the liver ___________ synthesis. glycogen
Insulin is used to treat diabetes mellitus and control more severe and complicated forms of ________ diabetes. type 2
adverse reactions of prostaglandins: HA, dizziness, fainting, flushing, HTN, acute hypotension, chest pain, dysrhythmias
adverse effects of insulin: rebound hyperglycemia, lipodystrophy of injection site (get knots where fat breaks down), hypersensitivity, hypoglycemia
act to increase the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions and decrease uterine bleeding ergot alkaloids
two generations of medications; act to lower blood glucose by stimulating the beta cells to relaese insulin sulfonylureas
ergot alkaloid medications: Ergonovine (Ergotrate maleate), Methylergonovine (Methergine)
adverse effects of sulfonylureas: hypoglycemia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric discomfort, weight gain, heartburn, weakness and numbness of extremities
reduces hepatic glucose production and increases insulin sensitivity to muscle and fat cells; also used for PCOD biguanides
biguanide medication: metformin (Glucophage)
adverse effects of biguanides: GI upsent (abdominal bloating, nausea, cramping, diarrhea, etc), metallic taste, hypoglycemia (rare)
decrease insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity by modifying several processes thiazolidinediones
thiazolidinedione medications: rosiglitazone (Avandia), pioglitazone (Actos)
adverse effects of thiazolidinediones: aggravated DM, URI, sinusitis, headache, pharyngitis, myalgia, diarrhea, back pain
stimulate insulin relase from the pancreas meglitinides
meglintinide medications: nateglinide (Starlix), repaglinide (Prandin)
adverse effects of meglitinides: URI, headache, rhinitis, bronchitis, back pain, hypoglycemia
improves glucose control in Type 2 DM incretin mimetics
incretin mimetic drugs: exenatide (Byetta); sitagliptin (Januvia)
adverse effects of incretin minetics: HA, dizziness, jitteriness, N/V, diarrhea
decrease uterine contractions tocolytics
tocolytic drug that stops pre-term labor; will make you extremely dry; pt has to be in the hospital and consistently monitored when taking Yutopar, Brethine
tocoloytic that is used in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia magnesium sulfate
adverse effects of tocolytics: usually associated iwth IV administration
uterine stimulator; used to start or improve labor contractions, manage an inevitable or imcomplete abortion oxytocin
adverse effects of oxytocin: fetal bradycardia, uterine rupture, uterine hypertonicity,nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, anaphylactic reactions, water intoxication
used in the induction of labor, evacuation of the uterus, and control of postpartum hemorrhage; used to soften and dilate the cervix prostaglandins
prostaglandin medications: Cervidil, hemabate
adverse reactions of prostaglandins: HA, dizziness, fainting, flushing, HTN, acute hypotension, chest pain, dysrhythmias
act to increase the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions and decrease uterine bleeding ergot alkaloids
ergot alkaloid medications: Ergonovine (Ergotrate maleate), Methylergonovine (Methergine)
adverse effects of ergot alkaloids: nausea, vomiting, elevated blood pressure, temporary chest pain, dissiness, water intoxication, headache
used in treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency; for children who are continuing to grow; cannot be given after puberty has started anterior pituitary hormone replacement drugs
anterior pituitary hormone replacement medications: Somatropin (humatrope); cosyntropin (Cosyntropin)
chemicals that are made in an organ or gland and carried through the blood stream to another part of the body hormones
specific chemical group of hormones that have powerful effects on cell sensitization, healing and development steroids
a complicated, chronic disorder characterized by insufficient insulin production or by cellular resistance to insulin diabetes
a hormone produced by the pancreas that acts to maintain blood glucose levels within normal limits; essential for the use of glucose in cellular metabolism and for proper protein and fat metabolisml insulin
hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas; controls the use of glucose, protein, and fat in the body; lowers blood sugar by inhibiting glucose production by the liver; available as purified extracts from beef and pork pancreas (used infrequently) insulin
Insulin activates a process that helps _________ enter the cells. glucose
Insulin stimulates the liver ___________ synthesis. glycogen
Insulin is used to treat diabetes mellitus and control more severe and complicated forms of ________ diabetes. type 2
adverse effects of insulin: rebound hyperglycemia, lipodystrophy of injection site (get knots where fat breaks down), hypersensitivity, hypoglycemia
two generations of medications; act to lower blood glucose by stimulating the beta cells to relaese insulin sulfonylureas
adverse effects of sulfonylureas: hypoglycemia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric discomfort, weight gain, heartburn, weakness and numbness of extremities
reduces hepatic glucose production and increases insulin sensitivity to muscle and fat cells; also used for PCOD biguanides
biguanide medication: metformin (Glucophage)
adverse effects of biguanides: GI upsent (abdominal bloating, nausea, cramping, diarrhea, etc), metallic taste, hypoglycemia (rare)
decrease insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity by modifying several processes thiazolidinediones
thiazolidinedione medications: rosiglitazone (Avandia), pioglitazone (Actos)
adverse effects of thiazolidinediones: aggravated DM, URI, sinusitis, headache, pharyngitis, myalgia, diarrhea, back pain
stimulate insulin relase from the pancreas meglitinides
meglintinide medications: nateglinide (Starlix), repaglinide (Prandin)
adverse effects of meglitinides: URI, headache, rhinitis, bronchitis, back pain, hypoglycemia
improves glucose control in Type 2 DM incretin mimetics
incretin mimetic drugs: exenatide (Byetta); sitagliptin (Januvia)
adverse effects of incretin minetics: HA, dizziness, jitteriness, N/V, diarrhea
decrease uterine contractions tocolytics
tocolytic drug that stops pre-term labor; will make you extremely dry; pt has to be in the hospital and consistently monitored when taking Yutopar, Brethine
tocoloytic that is used in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia magnesium sulfate
adverse effects of tocolytics: usually associated iwth IV administration
uterine stimulator; used to start or improve labor contractions, manage an inevitable or imcomplete abortion oxytocin
adverse effects of oxytocin: fetal bradycardia, uterine rupture, uterine hypertonicity,nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, anaphylactic reactions, water intoxication
used in the induction of labor, evacuation of the uterus, and control of postpartum hemorrhage; used to soften and dilate the cervix prostaglandins
prostaglandin medications: Cervidil, hemabate
adverse reactions of prostaglandins: HA, dizziness, fainting, flushing, HTN, acute hypotension, chest pain, dysrhythmias
act to increase the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions and decrease uterine bleeding ergot alkaloids
ergot alkaloid medications: Ergonovine (Ergotrate maleate), Methylergonovine (Methergine)
adverse effects of ergot alkaloids: nausea, vomiting, elevated blood pressure, temporary chest pain, dissiness, water intoxication, headache
used in treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency; for children who are continuing to grow; cannot be given after puberty has started anterior pituitary hormone replacement drugs
anterior pituitary hormone replacement medications: Somatropin (humatrope); cosyntropin (Cosyntropin)
anterior pituitary hormone replacement drugs that are used in diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency corticotropin (ACTH), cosyntropin (Cosyntropin)
adverse effects of corticotropin (ACTH) depression, nausea, petechiae, hypernatremia, adrenal suppression, seizure, vertigo, HA, personality changes, euphoria, mood swings, impaired would healing, thinning of the skin, ecchymosis, facial redness, diaphoresis, hyperpigmentation
adverse effects of consyntropin: hypersensitivity
ACTH is used to help treat: bedwetting
posterior pituitary hormone replacement drug used in prevention and treatment if diabetes insipidus, enuresis (bedwetting), and acute epistaxis (nosebleed) Desmorpressin acetate (DDAVP)
Diabetes Insipidus (DI) happens when: the posterior pituitary is damaged. The body will freely excrete urine. No vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is in the body. Could also be caused by brain tumor (pituitary tumor).
posterior pituitary hormone replacement drug used in preventntion and treatment of DI: Lypressin (Diapid)
adverse effects of posterior pituitary hormone replacement drugs: conjunctivitis, runny nose, local irritation, congestion of nasal passages, HA, heartburn
posterior pituitary homrone replacement drug used in treatment of DI: vasopressin (ADH, Pitressin)
Adverse effects of vasopressin: circumoral pallor (pale around mouth), abdominal cramps, nausea, sweating, tremor, severe HA
influence immune response; regulate glucose, fat and protein metabolism, and antiinflammatory repsonse; act by entering target cells and binding to receptors, initiating many comples reactions in the body glucocorticoids
used is replacement therapy, allergic conditions, collagen diseases, shock, adrenocoritical insufficiency, etc glucocorticoids
adverse effects of glucocorticoids: has many adverse reactions; s/s of Cushing's syndrome (buffalo hump, moon face, oily skin, acne, osteoporosis, purple striae on abdomen and hips, skin pigmentation, weight gain, hypertension)
adrenal hormone-inhibiting drug used in treatment of Cushing's syndrome aminoglutehimide (Cytadren)
adrenal hormone-inhibiting drug used in the treatment of adrenocoritcal carcinoma mitotane (Lysodren)
adrenal hormone-inhibiting drug used in diagnosis of pituitary function: metyrapone (Metopirone)
adverse effects of adrenal hormone-inhibiting drugs nausea, abdominal distress, HA, drowsiness, dizziness, morbilliform (rash)
act to conserve sodium and increase potassium excretion; deficiencies result in a loss of sodium and retention of potassium; used as replacement therapy for deficiency mineralcorticoids
mineralcorticoid medications: Aldosterone, desoxycorticosterone (DOCA), fludrocortisone (Flurinef)
adverse effects of mineralcorticoids edema, htn, CHF, enlargement of the heart, increased sweating, allergic skin rash, hypokalemia, muscular weakness, HA, hypersensitivity reactions
hormone secreted by the ovarian follicle and the adrenal cortex; important in the development and maintenance of female reportductive system estrogen
estrogen medications: Premarin, Estraderm
Uses of estrogen: contraceptive, hormone replacment therapy, vasomotor symptoms of menopause
adverse effects of estrogen: headache, migraine, dizziness, mental depression, chloasma, melasma (skin discolorations), n/v, abdominal cramps, pruritus, breakthrough bleeding, spotting, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, libido changes, breast tenderness
transforms the proliferate endometrium into a secretory endometrium; necessary for the development of the placenta and inhibits the secretion of pituitary gonatotropins, preventing maturation of ovarian follicle and ovulation; causes menopause progestin drugs
uses of progestin drugs: amenorrhea, endometriosis, functional uterine bleeding, contraception
adverse effects of progestin drug: breakthrough bleeding, spotting, change in menstual flow, amenorrhea, breast tenderness, edema, weight increase or decrease, acne, chloasma, melasma, depression
estrogen and progestin combinations contraceptive hormones
Contraceptive hormones are: monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic
testosterone and its derivatives - collectively called androgens male hormones
male hormone; actuate the reporductive process in men; aid in the development of male secondary sex characteristics; promote anabolism and catabolism androgens
androgen medications fluoxymesterone and testosterone
stimulates the growth in size of accessory sex organs at puberty testosterone
replacement therapy for testosterone deficiency, inoperable metastatic breast cancer androgens
adverse effects of androgens: gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, impotence, nausea, jaundice, headache, anxiety, male pattern baldness, depression, amenorrhea, menstrual irregularities, virilization
located in the neck in front of the trachea; highly vascular gland that secretes 2 hormones thyroid gland
thyroid secretes: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
_______ is essential element in hormone production. Iodine
Activity regulated by: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (?)
Two diseases related to hormone-producing activity: hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism
antithyroid used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxic crisis propylthiouracil (PTU)
antithyroid used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism; strong iodine solution (Lugol's Solution); used in preparation for thyroidectomy Methimazole (Topazol)
antithyroid used in the short-term treatment of Graves disease and thyrotoxic crisis potassium iodide solution (SSKI)
adverse effects of potassium iodide solution (SSKI) hypothyroidism
act to increase metabolic rate; replacement therapy in hypothyroidism, euthyroid creation, thyrotoxicosis thyroid hormones
thyroid hormone drugs levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levoxyl)
adverse effects of thyroid hormones: palpitations, tachycardia, nervousness, headache, insomnia, diarrhea
assists parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in regulating calcium hypocalcemic drugs
hypocalcemic medication vitamin D
hypercalcemic drug used in the treatment of osteoporosis, Paget's disease Miacalcin
hypercalcemic drug used in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osterporosis, male osteoporosis, Paget's disease Fosamax
hypercalcemic drug used in treatment of Paget's disease and hypercalcemia associated with malignancy Didronel
hypercalcemic drug used in the treatment of portmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, Paget's disease Actonel
hypercalcemic drug used in the treatment of hypercalcemia associated with malignancy Ganite
adverse reactions to hypercalcemic drugs: facial flushing, nausea
____________ is the hypercalcemic drug most often seen. Fosomax
When taking a hypercalcemic drug, sit up for ________ afterward. sit up.
The next questions were gone over as a review for the test. :) :)
for short-term relief of GI upset, use: antacid
to treat peptic ulcer, use: Histamine H-2 Receptors
to treat gastric ulcer, use: proton pump inhibitors
difference in using proton pump inhibitors or histamine h2 receptors is determined by: location in the stomach
Do proton pump inhibitors work immediately? no - take 1-2 weeks
Can antacids be taken with proton pump inhibitors? NO
Can antacids be taken with histamine H2 receptors? yes
when treating for GERD, will relief be imediate? no - builds up over time
How long does it take antacids to work? 30 min - 1 hour
Know basic info about insulin --
To find medication to treat ulcers, it is usually done with: trial and error
If a pt has abdominal pain because of spicy foods, what should they take? antacid
For duodenal ulcer, the most common drug used to treat is: Protonix (an H2 receptor)
If a pt has abdominal bloating, what would be given? antiflatulent
If a pt is alcoholic, how would an ulcer be treated? with an antispasmotic AND anticholinergic
Most effective anticholinergic for irritable bowel syndrome and has minimal side effects: Anaspaz
used to clearly evacuate bowel before diagnostic procedure saline laxative
If pt has been on Ex-Lax it would be important to check: electrolyte balance - to see if potassium is in balance because of potassium - can effect heart (cardiac) cells
Medication given to breakdown gall stones (which can be caused by excess cholesterol) Chenix - chenodyle (spelling??)
Simethecone takes the foam off - antiflatulant
Disulfiram drug of choice for alcoholism - makes alcohol taste horrible - will make you very sick if you drink alcohol or take anything with alcohol in it.
Teach patients to _____________ when taking laxatives. drink lots of water
If taking med for constipation, you should/should not take medication with milk? should not (Milk can cause constipation and aggrevate irritable bowel syndrome)
When drawing up anticoagulants: change needle after drawing up
Concentrate on classifications and teaching of drugs.
Created by: akgalyean