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food sci

Lipids are insoluble in water but soluble in fat solvents like hexane and ether
Food scientists are interested in triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols like cholesterol
Importance of lipids contributes to consistency, chemical reactive leading to off-flavors, provides calories and essential fatty acids, excess leads to heart disease
Oils are fats above the melting pt
Fats are oils below melting pt
Sources of fats and oils are from animals and vegetable
triclyderides composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Fatty Acids CH_3_-CH_2_-CH_2_----------CH_2_-COOH
Bonds in carbon atoms can be single or double
Single C-C the fatty acid is saturated
Single C=C the fatty acid is monounsaturated
Double C=C the fatty acid is Diunsaturated
Three or more C=C the fatty acid is polyunsaturated
Increase in double bonds equals lower melting pt
Decrease in double bonds equals high melting pt
the rate of oxidation depends on the degree of unsturation poly > di > mono > unsaturated
Oxidation is increased by oxygen, light, heat, trace metals
All fats go rancid unless it is highly saturated
To prevent oxidation we can remove oxygen, use low temp, package, add chelators like edta, add antioxidants
Antioxidants commonly used BHA (butylated hydroxy anisole), BHT (butylated hydroxy toluene), tocopherol vitamin E, vitamin C
Animal fats are extracted from adipose tissue by rendering (heating up fats to remove liquid oils which later crystallized into solid fat)
Vegetable oils are extracted by crushing oil seeds. Oil seeds are filtered off and then refined.
Hydrogenation liquid oils are hardened and turned into plastic fats (margarine and shortenings)
Process of hydrogenation oil + hydrogen gas heated with a metal catalyst
Created by: lindarim