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What are the four branches of food science? food chemistry / food microbiology / food processing / food analysis
Which is the oldest of the four branches? Food Chemistry
Food Chemistry deals with? chemical composition /structure of food chem. / function of food chem./ reactions undergonbyfood chem. / effect of chemical changes on quality of food
Chemical composition is what or how much molecules are present in food (minerals, sugars, fat etc)
Structure of Food Chems how unstable/stable it is or how foods are constantly changing biochemically
Functionality of Food Chemicals the taste, color, texture / properties of molecules ie. wet, dry, crispy, foamy
Reactions undergonby food chemicals processing operations such as heating, freezing, drying or fermentation
Many chemicals are unstable unless it's chemical property changes its function like freezing, dehydrating etc.
Effect of chemical changes on quality of food changes occur during processing that effect nutritional value. As well as, color, flavor, texture, and aroma
Food Chemicals include such things as lipids/fats, carbohydrates/sugars, protein, minerals/salts, vitamins, pigments, flavors, enzymes, additives (like synthetic or artificial sweetners), water
Food Additives include minerals, antioxidants, chelators, preservatives, colorants, flavorants, thickeners, stabilizers, anti-caking agents, non-nutritive sweetners
Non-natural food additives are edta, sodium silico-aluminate, benzyol peroxide
Minerals help improve nutritional value
Antioxidants help food from oxidizing
Chelators chemical that bonds metals in fats (like iron, copper, zinc in salad dressing)
Preservatives inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi (like microbial substances to prevent spoilage)
Thickeners changes texture
Anti-caking Agents dry powder
Non-nutritive sweetners chemicals that provide sweetners without being metabolized by the body
EDTA A metal chelator common in fatty foods (Ethylene diamine tetraactic acid)
Sodium Silico-Aluminate An anti caking agent
Benzyol Peroxide bleaching agent that bleaches out color in flour
Pectin an ingredient which is often found in jam that is responsible for the gel-like formation/spreadability
Jams usually contain sugar (60-65%), water, fruit, acid, and gelatin
Low-Calorie Jam has modified pectin and calcium
Chemical changes/reactions mostly lead to loss in food quality i.e. color, texture, flavor, nutritive value
Some examples of chemical changes are non-enzymic browning, enzymic browning, lipid oxidation, protein denaturation, protein crosslinking, loss of vitamins
Non-enzymic browning happens whenever protein interacts with sugar (toasting of bread or dough from heat)
Enzymic browning oxidation of fruits
Protein denaturation loss in natural structure and function
Protein crosslinking protein chemicals interact with each other, changes in quality (example: beef jerky becomes tough)
Loss of Vitamins by heat (B1, B6, C), by light (B2), by oxidation (C, D, E, A)
Some chemicals changes actually improves quality example: tenderizing of meat by action of proteolytic enzymes
Created by: lindarim