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Mr. Wills ML 11.1-3

Heredity Terms

TermsDefinitions
Heredity the biological inheritance of an organism
Genetics study of heredity
Trait Characteristic that distinguishes one individual from another
Hybrid description of offspring of parents with different characteristics
Gene DNA segment that controls traits
Alleles different forms of a gene ex. brown, red and blond hair.
Dominant form of an allele that is expressed even when present with a contrasting allele, Capital letters
Recessive form of an allele that is expressed only when a contrasting alleles not present, lower case letters
Phenotype Form of a trait that an organism displays
Genotype genetic composition of an organism BB,Bb,bb
Who is Gregor Mendel monk who lived in the mid 1800's who discovered that traits were passed on by physical units he called Merkmals(genes); the father of genetics.
Mendel's 1st Principle individual units, called genes, determine biological characteristics
Mendel's 2nd Principle For each gene, an organism receives one allele from each parent. The alleles separate from each other -a process called segregation - when reproductive cells are formed
Mendel's 3rd Priciple If an Organism inherits different alleles for the same trait, one allele may be dominate over the other
Mendel's 4th Principle Some genes segregate independently
Homozygous description of an organism that has an identical pair of alleles for a trait
Heterozygous description of an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
segregation process that separates the two allels of a gene
Independent Assortment process by which genes segerate independently
True Breeding stock that always passes its characteristics to the next generation
Cross Pollinating cross two different types of true breeding plants
Self Pollinating when a plant has both its male and female parts so there is no chance of cross polination
linked genes genes on the same chromosome
crossing-over exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that produces more possible combinations of genetic material than would exist otherwise
Punnett square are used to predict the genetic variations that will result in the phenotypes and genotypes of offspring
Upper Case letters Represent dominant alleles(genes for a trait)
Lower case Letters represent recessive alleles
P Generation Parent Generation (usually homozygous for traits)
F1 Generation the hybrid offspring of the P generation.
pure bred an individual that is dominant for a trait. They have no other alleles.
probability the likelihood that a particular event will occur
Two Factor cross a punnet square that showed that in pea plants traits are independently assorted
incomplete dominance when one allele is not completely dominent over the another and the result is a trait that is between the two phenotypes
co-dominance when both alleles contribute to the phenotype, ex. a black and white cow. Not a gray cow.
multiple alleles when a single gene has more than two alleles. They could have a red, white or blue phenotype.
polygenic the most complex traits because the phenotype is caused by more than two alleles. This means that there is a large variation in the way an individual looks
Created by: willsm