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Micro Test2

Microbiology test

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) The energy currency of cells. Hydrolysis of its unstable phosphate bonds can be used to power endergonic (energy-consuming) reactions.
Anabolism Processes that utilize energy stored in ATP to synthesize and assemble the subunits (building blocks) of macromolecules that make up the cell; biosynthesis.
Catabolism Process that harvest energy released during the breakdown of compounds such as glucose, using it to synthesize ATP.
Electron Transport Chain Group of membrane-embedded electron carriers that pass electrons from one to another, and, in the process, move protons across the membrane to create a proton motive force.
Enzyme A protein that functions as a catalyst, speeding up a biological reaction.
Fermentation Metabolic process that stops short of oxidizing glucose or other organic compounds completely, using an organic intermediate such as pyruvate or a derivative as a terminal electron acceptor.
Oxidative Phosphorylation Synthesis of ATP using the energy of a proton motive force created by harvesting chemical energy.
Photophosphorylation Synthesis of ATP using the energy of a proton motive force created by harvesting radiant energy.
Precursor Metabolites Metabolites intermediates that can either be used to make the subunitd of macromolecules, or be oxidized to generate ATP.
Proton Motive Force Form of energy generated as an electron transport chain moves protons across a membrane, creating a chemiosmotic gradient
Respiration Process that involves transfer of electrons stripped from a chemical energy source to an electron transport chain, generating a proton motive force that is then used to synthesize ATP.
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation Synthesis of ATP using the energy released in an exergonic (energy-releasing) chemical reaction.
Terminal Electron Acceptor Chemical such as O2 that is ultimately reduced as a consequence of fermentation or respiration.
Anoxygenic Phototrophs Photosynthetic organisms that do not produce O2
Chemolithotroph An organism that harvests energy by oxidizing inorganic chemicals.
Chemoorganotroph An organism that harvests energy by oxidizing organic chemicals.
Chemotroph An organism that harvests energy by oxidizing chemicals.
Cyanobacteria Gram-negative oxygenic phototrophs; genetically related to chloroplasts.
Lactic Acid Bacteria Gram-positive bacteria that gernate lactic acid as a major end product of their fermentative metabolism.
Methanogens Archea that obtain energy by oxidizing hydrogen gas, using CO2 as a terminal electron acceptor, thereby generating methane.
Myxobacteria Gram-negative bacteria that congregate to form complex structures called fruiting bodies.
Nitrifiers Gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic nitrogen compounds such as ammonia or nitrate.
Oxygenic Phototrophs Photosynthetic organisms that produce O2
Prosthecate Bacteria Grame-negative bacteria that have extensions projecting from the cells, thereby increasing their surface area.
Spirochetes Long helical bacteria that have flexible cell walls and axial filaments.
Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria Gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing elemental sulfur and reduced sulfur compounds, thereby generating sulfuric acid.
Alga A unicellular or simple multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organism.
Arthropod Taxonomic grouping of invertebrate animals that includes insects, ticks, live, and mites.
Convergent Evolution Process of evolution when two genetically different organism develop similar environment adaptations.
Eucarya Name of the domain comprising eukaryotic organisms.
Fungus A non-photosynrhetic eukaryotic organism.
Helminth A parasitic worm.
Nematode Roundworm.
Neurotoxin Toxin that damages the nervous system.
Phytoplankton Floating and swimming algae and photosynthetic Prokaryotic organisms of lakes and oceans
Polymorphic Having different distinct forms.
Protozoa Group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms.
Toxin Poisonous Chemical substance.
Trematodes Flatworms known also as flukes.
yeasts Unicellular Fungi
Bacteriophage A virus that infects bacteria; often shortened to phage.
Burst Size Number of newly formed virus particles released from a single cell following virus replication.
Carrier Cells Cells that are capable of releasing virus particles without being killed by the virus.
Host The organism infected by the virus.
Latent State The state of phage when its DNA is integrated into the genome of the host.
Lysogen A bacterium that carries phage DNA (the prophage) integrated into its genome.
Lysogenic Conversion The change in properties of a bacterium as a result of carrying a prophage. The phage DNA codes for the new properties.
Maturation The stage in viral replication in which the various components of the virion assemble to form a whole virion; also termed assembly.
Productive Infection Virus infection in which more virus particles are produced as a result of infection.
Prophage Phage DNA that is integrated into the genome of a host.
Temperate Phage A phage that has the ability to integrate its DNA into the chromosome of the host.
Virion A complete virus in its inert non-replicating form.
Created by: katrina14