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CI Afghanistan

Vocabulary, Reading Questions, and Questions from the Lectures for TEST

QuestionAnswer
What is the connection between the events of September 11th, 2001 and Afghanistan? Afghanistan was (and still is) a safe haven for the terrorist group Al-Qaeda, who is responsible for the 9/11 attacks.
To what extent was the U.S. military (in Afghanistan) successful in this period? (2001-2002) Military was able to activate and complete Operation Enduring Freedom.
Define: Operation Enduring Freedom Mission of U.S. military in Afghanistan following 9/11/2001.
What were/are the goals of Operation Enduring Freedom? 1. Destroy terrorist camps. 2. Capture Al-Qaeda leaders. 3. Aid Northern Alliance
After the aerial target campaign, the Taliban falls. What happens to Al-Qaeda? Al-Qaeda flees to the mountains.
Which of our goals for the war in Afghanistan were successful? 1. Capture or kill Osama Bin Laden and other top Al-Qaeda leaders. 2. Destroy Al-Qaeda terrorist camps. 3. Remove the Taliban from power.
Which of our goals for the war in Afghanistan has yet to be successful? (In other words, what have we not been able to do yet?) 1. Create a stable government.
Which is the longest war in history? A. Vietnam B. Afghanistan Afghanistan; it has been active for 119 months. Vietnam lasted for 103 months.
What are three key factors that explain our difficulties in fighting the war in Afghanistan? 1. Terrain 2. Tribalism 3. History
What is the geography like in Afghanistan? 1. Very mountainous (Edge of Himalayan Mountains) 2. High Altitudes 3. Landlocked 4. Arid 5. Ill-defined borders
What are the demographics (in Afghanistan) that are most important to U.S. involvement? 1. 53% of the population is below the poverty line. 2. Strong ethnic and tribal identities flock the area. 3. Multiple tribal identities cross the Afghan-Pakistani border.
Why does Afghanistan's history of their foreign policy tactics during previous wars matter to the United States? Afghanistan has a history of: 1. Foreign invasion 2. Foreign occupation 3. Successful resistance
Why did the British lose "The Great Game" (3 wars) to Afghanistan? They lost because: 1. Afghanistan was occupied by their (foreign) troops. 2. They installed an unpopular leader. 3. They used Afghan tribes against each other.
Why were the Soviets also unsuccessful in their war against Afghanistan? History repeated itself: 1. Installed unpopular leader 2. Occupied country 3. Insurgency 4. Mujahideen movement started...
What happened to Afghanistan after the Soviets withdrew from the war in defeat? 1. The United States lost interest. 2. War ravaged in Afghanistan. 3. Power vacuum left. 4. Withdrawal radicalized Islamic fighters.
Define: Power Vacuum When there is no authority figure in a country; many groups may use this as an opportunity to be the country's "savior" and then gain power.
What were the origins of the Taliban? 1. Soviet withdrawal caused power vacuum. 2. Instability - Many were royal to their tribes but not royal to the idea of the 'state.' 3. Violence - U.S. lost interest and left weapons (meant to be for the Mujahideen) laying around. 4. Corruption
Why was the Taliban very 'accepted' by the Afghans in the early 90's? They were seen as crime fighters: 1. No security 2. Violent crime rate was very high.
Why did the Afghans support the Taliban (at first)? Afghans liked them because: 1. They were very quick in decreasing the violence. 2. They were the only group doing anything about the instability and violence in order to protect the Afghan people; despite their violent methods.
Who is Mullah Omar? The Taliban Leader
Why did the Taliban mission shift from crime fighting to power-seeking? 1. Omar noticed that the movement was rapidly growing. 2. There was little to no resistance from the Afghan people.
How did the Taliban get their followers/members? They recruited from Madrasses. They indoctrinated and recruited people that had fled over the border to Pakistan during the wars.
Define: Madrasses Religious schools located just over the Afghan-Pakistani border.
The Taliban received support from two significant sources. Who were these sources, and what did they provide? 1. ISI - Pakistani Intelligence 2. Osama Bin Laden - Provided money, which brought weapons and further sources of intelligence.
Who were/are the main leaders of the Northern Alliance? 1. Ahmad Massoud 2. Abdul Dostrum
What is/was the Northern Alliance? Northern Alliance is/was a group of Afghan rebels that had control of the northern territories of Afghanistan.
Why did we go to the Northern Alliance for help? 1. Anti-Taliban 2. Appeal for international assistance 3. Somewhat better human rights
What are the essentials of Taliban Ideology? The Taliban ideology is based on strict interpretation of Sharia law.
What kind of things did the Taliban outlaw? 1. Music 2. Alcohol 3. Art 4. Computers
What methods did the Taliban use to "serve justice" to a "criminal"? 1. Public executions 2. Public amputations 3. Stonings 4. Beatings
Why was Ahmad Massoud the "last hope" for Afghanistan? He: 1. Had a better human rights record 2. Allowed women to work and to attend school.
What happened to Ahmad Massoud? He was assassinated September 10th, 2001. (Coincidence?)
What was the state (situation/condition) of Afghanistan on September 11th, 2001? Afghanistan was: 1. Taliban controlled 2. An Al-Qaeda safe haven 3. Poor 4. Tribal
What were the goals of the Taliban? Restore order in Afghanistan through strict Islamic law
What were the goals of Al-Qaeda? End U.S. domination of the Islamic world
What country has the largest population of Muslims? Indonesia
What do the letters S,L and M mean in the Arabic language? "Submission to God"
In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. What group of fighters moved to Afghanistan/Pakistan to fight the "godless communists?" The Mujahideen
After the Mujahideen helped defeat the Soviets, Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. Who approached the Saudi Arabian King with help? Osama bin Laden presented the king with the Mujahideen fighters.
The king of Saudi Arabia rejected bin Laden's offer because he already had asked the Americans for help. After this rejection, where does bin Laden move to, and who does he meet there? Osama bin Laden moved to Sudan. There, he met Ayman Al Zahiri. Zahiri told bin Laden, "the only way to defeat the Americans is through terror."
Who is the president of Afghanistan? Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai was first elected in 2002 to lead what type of government? A transitional government.
What was the nature of the fraud during the '09 elections? 1.5 million votes were suspected fraud. Voters were forcibly influenced by Karzai's brother. There were "ghost polling stations" spread throughout the country.
How has Karzai addressed the corruption issues? Karzai established a "Corrupt Afghanistan Independent Election Commission" designed to prevent fraud.
What was the US response to the corruption? Obama demanded a crackdown on corruption.
Who does Karzai blame for the fraud during the '09 elections? Karzai blames foreigners and outside influences.
How is the US attempting to address the corruption inside Afghanistan? US personnel are working along with Afghans in the anti-corruption unit
How is Karzai responding to the US attempt to address corruption? Karzai excuses a target of the anti-corruption unit.
How is Karzai defending his position? He claims that the anti-corruption unit is threatening "human rights principles."
What is the nature of Iran's financial assistance to Afghanistan? The money is very loosely secured; and most of it is being pocketed by Karzai.
How might the nature of Iran's financial assistance lead to further corruption within the Afghan government? Cash is becoming increasingly important in Afghanistan.
what is Tribalism? Strong in group loyalty among ethnicities
Why have the Pashtuns been the dominant tribe? They are the largest tribal community in Afghanistan. Hamid Karzai is a member of the Pashtun tribe.
Why is a tribal society difficult to unify? Tribes have developed their own cultural values. They live in different areas of the country. Tribal identity and loyalty precede national identity.
Why is tribalism important to the US and the war on terror? The US is trying to unify tribes that have had a long history of conflict and mistrust with one another.
What was the initial US plan in the capture of Osama bin Laden? Use of the CIA, Special Forces, and Bombers
What were the initial problems with the US initial plan to capture bin Laden? CIA (not enough specialists, Special forces) questionable Afghan allies
Why did we doubt the alliance of the Afghan forces? Afghanis fight during the day and leave at night; also they protected bin Laden with faulty ceasefire when Special Forces were close, and the nturned their guns on the US
How do terrorist cells communicate? Laterally; versus top-down like a phone-tree
What is decentralized organization? Terrorist cells do not have information about other terrorist cells.
In order for decentralized organization to communicate laterally, there has to be a network of trusted people to pass information called what? Couriers
What is an insurgency? Bands of irregular fighters without uniform, with its members coming mainly from Taliban and Al Qaeda.
What are some insurgent tactics? Booby traps, IEDs, Sniping, and ambushes
What is challenging about the terrain of Afghanistan? It is very mountainous, porous borders (allows transportation of people, weapons, and drugs)
What is the problem with Pakistan (as referred to in US military challenges)? Pakistani national interests may override the US's ability to gain help from the country.
What are the problems with the Afghan police force? Illiteracy, drug abuse, low salaries, and tribal allegiences
Why is Opium important to Afghanistan? 92% of the world's opium is grown in Afghanistan. It is 1/3 of the country's economy.
Why doesnt the US eradicate the opium? Attacks are on the rise, global prices are soaring, and it destroys local economy - may encourage families to join the Taliban.
How does the US try to discourage the growth of opium poppies? Anti-drug ad campaigns, high profile drug busts
What is the most likely choice of the US' methods to decrease the drug problem in Afghanistan? Introduce new crops. Negatives: could be costly, and may take a long time
What is the current policy with the Opium market in Afghanistan? Phasing out eradication; focus on interdiction and development
What did Candidate Obama want to do about Afghanistan? Send at least 2 more brigades; 14,000 more troops, change course from iraq to afghanistan
What did President Obama want to do about Afg. in 2009? surge of 33,000 troops; withdraw in 18 months
What does the surge hope to accomplish? Defeat Taliban resurgence, train security forces, capture/remove Al-Qaeda, create stability
What are the main changes in the US war strategy? Use of special forces, covert operations, and predator drones
What are the improvements the US has made in Afghanistan since 2009? Capture of Al-Qaeda, killing of Osama bin Laden, better trained security forces, steps made toward ending corruption
What is AQAP? Al-Qaeda on the Arabian Peninsula. Established by Anwar al-Awlaki, an American who moved to Yemen in 2004. Directly influenced the three terror attacks on US soil (Fort Hood, Detroit Plane, Times Square)
What is the major concern about removing all of our troops from Afghanistan right now? (Reading #1) Pulling out before finishing is a parallel to what happened with the Vietnam War. Claims of progress have been buffeted by high-profile Taliban attacks and assassinations.
What is the main idea behind the chart depicted in this article? (Reading #1) Chart emphasizes the fact that the majority of our taxpayer's money isnt going to what we're told it is going to. Money goes to military goods and services MORE than it goes to diplomatic operations and foreign aid.
How has the US relationship with the Haqqanis changed since the 1980s? (Reading #3) They fought with us against the Soviets, now they're fighting against us in Afghanistan.
Why hasn't the US government placed the Haqqani fighters on the state department's list of terrorist groups? (Reading #3) Concerns that such a movement would scuttle any chances that the group would make peace with the Afghan government.
Why was Marine Dakota awarded the medal of honor? (Reading #5) he disobeyed orders and ran back into a violent fire zone to save 36 lives.
Who presents/awards the medal of honor? (Reading #5) The President of the United States; in this case, Obama.
What role does opium play in Afghanistan? (Reading #4) 1/3 of the economy is the Opium trade, it funds the Taliban, and creates power
What is the current US policy regarding production? (Reading #4) promote agricultural alternatives and to educate rural communities about the dangers of narcotics cultivation
How have we paid for the wars in Iraq/Afghanistan? (Reading #2) Entirely through borrowing
Why will the war in Afghanistan continue to be costly even after we leave? (Reading #2) We will have to pay for the care of military veterans, replacing military equipment, rebuilding the arms forces and paying interest on all the money we have borrowed.
Created by: jollygnt7