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connective cont.

more on connective tissue

major differences are cell type, fiber type and the amounts types of connective tissues
all tissues are composed of living cells surrounded by a matrix and arise from mesenchyme tissue - mesenchyme is the first tissue formed from the mesoderm germ layer types of connective tissues
Loose connective tissue is composed of (areolar, adipose, reticular) connective tissue proper
functions: support and binding other tissues, hold body fluids, defend against infection, store nutrients areolar connective tissue
universal packing material binding body parts together yet allowing them to move freely over one another areolar connective tissue
- white fat - high nutrient storing ability, large oil drop in center - contains adipocytes (fat cells) - closely packed cells that can’t divide - shock absorber, insulation - highly vascularized - brown fat- baby fat adipose connective tissue
(lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, liver) only has reticular fibers in its matrix forms a stroma that supports many blood cells reticular connective tissue
- tendons, ligaments - closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction - poorly vascularized dense regular connective tissue
-tendons attach muscle to bone - ligaments attach bones together dense regular connective tissue
- aponeuroses- flat, sheetlike tendons that attach muscles to other muscles or bones dense regular connective tissue
(cut longitudinally) The thick collagen fibers (pink) are lined up parallel to each other, in response to the stress placed on them by muscle and joint action. Fibroblasts are squeezed between the fibers and therefore also line up in parallel rows. dense regular connective tissue
(joint capsules, dermis) - able to withstand forces in multiple directions - irregularly arranged collagen fibers with some elastic fibers dense irregular connective tissue
large amounts of elastic fibers elastic connective tissue
intermediate between bone and dense connective tissue - avascular and lacks nerve fiber - large amounts of water and GAGs - chondroblasts are the predominant cell - chondrocytes (mature cartilage cells) are found in cavities in small groups called lacun cartilage
3 types of cartilage hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage
most abundant cartilage type hyaline cartilage or gristle
articular cartilage- springy pods in joints hyaline cartilage
epiphyseal plates- (childhood) actively growing regions near the ends of long bones hyaline cartilage
like hyaline with more elastin fibers - found where stretching is important elastic cartilage (epiglottis and ear)
found where hyaline cartilage meets a ligament or tendon - provides strong support and withstands heavy pressure rows of chondrocytes alternate with rows of thick collagen fibers fibrocartilage (knee and intervertebral discs)
- support and protect body structures - bones have cavities for fat storage and synthesis of blood cells osseous tissue
- contains inorganic calcium salts in its matrix - osteoblasts produce the organic portion of the matrix - vascularized - osteocytes make lacunae to reside in osseous tissue
blood cells surrounded by blood plasma (matrix) - fibers become visible only during clotting - transport system for nutrients, wastes, gases blood
4 membrane types, what are they? cutaneous, mucous, serous, and synovial membrane
- skin - keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to thick dense irregular connective tissue cutaneous membrane
or mucosae - line body cavities that open to the exterior - moist membranes - the epithelial layer is underlain by a layer of loose connective tissue = lamina propria mucous membrane
or serosae - moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities - named according to their site and specific organ associations - produces thin, clear serous fluid that lubricates the parietal and visceral layers serous membrane
- Consists of modified connective tissue - Produce hyaluronic acid for lubrication - modified connective tissue synovial membrane
Nervous tissue contains 2 major cell types, what are they? neurons & supporting cells
-specialized branching cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses neurons
-non-conducting cells that support, insulate, and protect neurons supporting cells
- highly cellular, well-vascularized - responsible for most body movements - possess myofilaments characteristic of muscular tissues
3 types of muscle tissue, what are they? cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle cell
or Striated Muscle - voluntary - flesh of the body - muscle fibers - long cylindrical cells with many nuclei and striations from myofilaments skeletal muscle
- found only in the heart - involuntary - striated, uninucleate - muscle fibers -branch with unique junctions called intercalated discs cardiac muscle
- found in the digestive tract, uterus - involuntary - spindle shaped cells without striations and a single nucleus smooth muscle
Created by: a.quimbaya1