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Fundamentals Of Nur


serum electrolytes Routinely ordered for any client admitted to a hospital as a screening test for electrolyte and acid-base imbalances
Most common ordered serum electrolytes are: sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate ions
is the end product of protein metabolism urea
produced by the muscle and excreted through the kidneys; relates to renal function Creatinine
normal Sodium Levels 135-145 mEq/L
Normal Potassium Levels : 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Normal Chloride Levels 95-105 mEq/L
Normal Calcium Levels 4.5-5.5 mEq/L
Normal magnesium levels 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
Normal phosphate levels 1.8-2.6 mEq/L
Hemoglobin A1c Glycosylated hemoglobin Reflection of how well blood glucose levels have been controlled during the prior 3-4 months Normal range is 4.0-5.5% Elevation reflects hyperglycemia in diabetics
capillary blood specimen is often taken to measure blood glucose when frequent tests are required or when a venipuncture cannot be performed
capillary blood specimen commonly obtained from the lateral aspect or side of the finger in adults
guiac test is used to detect occult blood in stool
1.010-1.025 Is an indicator of urine concentration or the amount of solutes present in the urine More concentrated urine, it increases specific gravity
average Urine pH 6
Normal findings of glucose in urine negative
normal findings of ketones in urine negative
Always an indicator of damage to kidneys or urinary tract blood in the urine
How do you collect a Sputum sample? Clients need to cough to bring sputum up from the lungs, bronchi and trachea into the mouth in order to expectorate it into a collecting container
Sputum specimens are usually collected for the following reasons (4) For culture and sensitivity For cytology to identify the origin, structure, function and pathology of cells For acid-fast bacillus To assess the effectiveness of therapy
is collected from the mucosa of the oropharynx and tonsillar regions using a culture swab. throat culture
Use this method to test for strep throat throat culture
invasive, techniques for visualizing body organ and system functions direct visualization
viewing of the anal canal anoscopy
viewing of the rectum proctoscopy
viewing the large intestine colonoscopy
Used to viualise any obstructions/strictures in urinary system KUB
Intravenous pyelography radiographic study used to evaluate the urinary tract
the bladder, ureteral oraffices and urethra can be directly visualized using a cytoscope
provides a graphic recording of the heart’s electrical activity Electrocardiography
used to detect dysrhythmias, and alterations in conduction indicative of myocardial damage, enlargement of the heart, or drug effects Electrocardiogram (ECG)
a radiopaque dye is injected into the vessels to be examined; assess flow through the vessels to see areas of narrowing or blockage angiography
 a noninvasive test that uses ultrasound to visualize structures of the heart and evaluate left ventricular function Echocardiogram
 is a noninvasive diagnostic scanning technique in which the client is placed in a magnetic field; there is no exposure to radiation MRI
is a painless, noninvasive x-ray procedure that has the unique capability of distinguishing minor differences in the density of tissues CT
is the withdrawal of fluid that has abnormally collected or to obtain a specimen aspiration
the removal and examination of tissue biopsy
cerebropsinal fluid is withdrawn through a needle inserted into the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae Lumbar puncture
After the procedure, make sure the patient lies flat for 1-12 hours and monitor for headache, bleeding or swelling at puncture site; any numbness, tingling, or pain radiating down the legs Lumbar puncture
Created by: fineva6782