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2.1 Genitics

Science 30 Bio Unit chapter 2

Chromosomes: -A strand of DNA found in the nucleus that contains the instructions for making proteins. -Chromosomes become X-shaped before cells divide. Anology: Cookbook full of reciepes.
How many chromosomes do humans have? 23 pairs (46 total)
All cells have... a complete set of chromosomes but only uses the instructions needed for its particular needs.
Genes: a segment of DNA that carries instructions that result in the production of proteins. ANOLOGY:Specific Reciepe
DNA: - molecule that contains the genetic information of cells. -base pairs read by cells to make product=PROTEINS. -Analogy: Language-info communicated.
genitics: the science of gene function and inheritance
Karyotype: an image of all the chromosomes in one nucleus that have been matched up into their respective pairs and arranged from the largest pair to the smallest pair.
3 features used to match up chromosomes: -length of chromosomes(longest-shortest) -pattern of dark bands when they are stained -posisition of centromere(chromosomes constricted part), which plays a role during cell division.
centromere the region on a replicated chromosome tha attaches the 2 identicle copies during cell division.
Role of Protein: Enzyme speed up chemical reactions where molecules are broken apart or put together.
Role of Protein:Structural structural support and frameworks are created to attach to other proteins.
Role of Protein:Transport materials are moved within the cell or body.
Role of Protein:hormone acts as signals to co-ordinate and regulate activities in the body.
Role of Protein:contractile change shape and can create larger movements when they work together.
Role of Protein:Defensive protect body against disease
Role of Protein: Energy serve as a source of chemical potential energy that can be released by its decomposistion.
Amniocentesis: a prenatal test done to look at the karyotype of an unborn child.
autosomal cells: a cell of the body not involved in sexual reproduction.
homologous chromosomes: a pair of chromosomes that would be matched during karyotyping because they have the same lengthh,centromere posistion and staining pattern.
replicate: to produce an exact copy of a DNA strand.
daughter cells: the 2 identical cells produced during mitosis.
mitosis: the division of an autosomal cell into 2 identicle daughter cells.
diploid cells: cells with pairs of homologous chromosomes
asexual reproduction: the production of genitically indenticle offspring from one individual.
gamete: sex cell, such as a sperm and egg, produced during meiosis with only one copy of each chromosome type.
meiosis: a 2 stage form of cell division that produces gametes with only half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
haploid cell: a cell that has only one member from each pair of homologous chromosomes.
selective breeding: choosing individuals with useful characteristics to produce a more desirable plant or animal stock.
Created by: Skyerene