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Physiology Practical

Axial Skeleton

long bones longer than they are wide, with a thick compact bone exterior
short bones almost equal in length and width and contain a thick interior of spongy bone covered by a thin veneer of compact bone
flat bones relatively flat, but may be curved and contain a thin, spongy bone interior covered by a thin veneer of compact bone
irregular bones do not easily fit into any of these categories, self explanatory
sesamoid bones small bones that develop in tendons for protection against wear and tear
epiphyses the enlarged proximal and distal ends of long bones
diaphysis the middle shaft area
metaphyses the areas in an adult bone where the epiphyses and diaphysis join
epiphyseal plate in a growing bone the metaphyses contain a layer of hyaline cartilage
epiphyseal line bone growth stops when the epiphyseal plate cartilage becomes ossified and forms a bony structure
articular cartilage composed of hyaline cartilage, covers both epiphyses
periosteum the bone exterior covered with a touch connective tissue membrane
medullary cavity the hollow center of the bony diaphysis
endosteum the medullary cavity is lined with a connective tissue membrane
osteoblasts bone formation, bone tissue repair
osteoclasts breaks down bone
yellow marrow a fatty substance found within the medullary cavity
red marrow found within the cavities of spongy bone and produces red blood cells
nutrient artery a large artery that enters compact bone near the middle of the diaphysis
nutrient foramen the foramen through which the nutrient artery enters
compact bone composed of repeating units of osteons with each unit having a central canal running longitudinally
perforating canals run horizontally in compact bone and connect with the central canal
concentric lamellae the main feature of each osteon, look similar to rings of a tree trunk cut in cross sections
lacunae dark areas that are found between concentric lamellae
canaliculi thin lines that connect the lacunae
osteocytes mature bone cells that reside in the lacunae
interstitial lamellae fills in the spaces between the osteons
spongy bone does not contain osteons but has trabeculae- lattice like network of thin bony columns lines with endosteum
axial skeleton 80 bones located along a vertical line, the longitudinal axis of the body- its bones support and protect the organs on the head, neck, and torso.
appendicular skeleton 126 bones that make up the upper limbs, lower limbs, and the bones of the girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton.
cranial bones form a bony cavity that harbors and protects the brain and houses organs of hearing and equilibrium
facial bones provide the shape of the face, house the teeth, and provide attachments for all the muscles of facial expression
parietal bones superior lateral walls of cranial cavity
temporal bones inferior lateral walls of cranial cavity, house organs of inner ear
frontal bone anterior portion of cranial cavity
occipital bone posterior wall of cranial cavity
sphenoid bone floor of cranial cavity posterior to ethmoid
ethmoid bone floor and anterior wall of cranial cavity
coronal suture joins frontal and parietal bones
sagittal joins parietal bones
lambdoid joins both parietal bones with occipital bone
squamous join temporal and parietal bones
maxillae fused upper jaw bones
zygomatic bones cheek bones
lacrimal bones portion of orbit of eyes near nasal bones
nasal bones bridge of nose
inferior nasal conchae forms lateral walls of nasal cavity
palatine bones fused bones that form posterior part of hard palate
mandible lower jaw bone
vomer inferior portion of nasal septum
supraorbital foramina opening located above the orbit of each eye for supraorbital nerve
supraorbital ridges or margins thickening of frontal bone superior to orbit of each eye
external auditory meatus tube-like opening for the ear canal
mastoid process rounded projection posterior to external auditory meatus, attachment for muscles
styloid process thin projection on inferior skull surface, attachment for muscles and ligaments of tongue and neck
zygomatic process projections that articulates with the zygomatic bone
mandibular fossa depression in mandible for articulation with condylar process
foramen lacerum jagged opening filled with cartilage in a living person
carotid foramen foramen for internal carotid artery
jugular foramen foramen for jugular vein and cranial nerves
stylomastoid foramen opening for an artery and cranial nerve VII
internal auditory meatus opening for cranial nerve VII
foramen magnum opening through which spinal cord connects to lower brain
hypoglossal foramina openings for cranial nerves XII
occipital condyles rounded processes that articulate with the atlas
cribriform plates one on either side of crista galli
crista galli projection for attachment membranes covering brain
olfactory foramina tiny holes in cribriform plates for cranial nerve I
perpendicular plate forms superior part of nasal septum
middle nasal conchae scroll-like projections on each lateral wall of nasal cavity
superior nasal conchae scroll-like projections on each later wall of nasal cavity
foramina ovale openings for mandibular branch of cranial nerve V
foramina rotundum openings for maxillary branch of cranial nerve V
sella turcica bony projection that surrounds and protects pituitary gland
greater and lesser wings form anterior and lateral floor of cranial cavity
optic foramina openings for cranial nerve II
inferior orbital fissures openings for bloos vessels and nerves
superior orbital fissures openings for blood vessels and cranial nerves III, IV, V, VI
pterygoid processes wing-like projections on the base of the skill in the middle section of the sphenoid bone
alveoli tooth sockets
palatine process fused processes that form the anterior part of hard palate
body curved, anterior portion of mandible
mental foramina openings in chin for nerves and blood vessels
rami posterior branches, one on either side of the body of mandible
condylar processes rounded processes on rami that articulate with temporal bone at the mandibular fossa to form the TMJ
coronoid processes triangular projections of rami anterior to the condylar processes
lacrimal fossa canal that houses lacrimal sac; formed from the maxilla and lacrimal bone
temporal process projects posteriorly; temporal process of zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal bone from the zygomatic arch
paranasal sinuses cavities lines with mucous membranes that are located near and have opening into the nasal cavities ex. ethmoid, frontal, maxillary, and sphenoid
nasal septum comprised fo 2 bones- vomer and perpendicular pate of the ethmoid bone
hard palate roof of the mouth- formed by the fusion of 4 bones: 2 palatine processes of the maxillary bones and 2 palatine bones
fontanels "soft spots" membranous sections composed of fibrous connective tisssue
hyoid bone U-shpaed bone not attached to axial skeleton
vertebral column flexible structure that can be bent, twisted, and rotated, especially in the cervical region. Consists of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and coccyx
cervical 7 bones
lumbar 12 bones
sacral 5 bones
body- vertebrae located anteriorly; the largest part of the vertebrae
pedicle attached to and extends posteriorly on either side of the body
transverse process extends laterally form each pedicle
lamina connects transverse processes to the spinous process
spinous process projects posteriorly from fused lamina
vertebral arch formed by the fusion of pedicles and laminae
atlas cervical vertebra 1- superior articular facets of the atlas articulate with the occipital condyles of the skull and allow the head to tilt up and down
axis C2- has a superior tooth-like protuberance called the dens or odontoid process
vertebral foramen large opening formed by the vertebral arch that protects the spinal cord
superior and inferior articular processes extend form the vertebra at the junction of the pedicle and lamina to articulate with a superior and inferior vertebra
thoracic vertebra medium sized body and usually long narrow spinous process that commonly slants inferiorly at a sharp angle
lumbar vertebrae the largest bodies to support more weight and thick, hatchet shaped spinous processes that extend horizontally
intervertebral discs found between the bodies of vertebrae from C2 to the sacrum
sacrum formed by the fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae and has a slightly curved, triangular shape, the broad superior portion os called the base and the two lateral winglike projections are called alae
sacral foramina provides exits for spinal nerves
sacral canal a continuation of the vertebral canal, located posterior to the body of the sacrum
sacral hiatus the inferior opening of the sacral canal
superior articular processes facets that articulate with the fifth lumbar vertebrae located on either side of the opening of the sacral canal
auricular surfaces the lateral surfaces of the sacrum- articulate with the iliac portion of the os coxa on each side
sacroiliac joints when the auricular surfaces articulate with the iliac portion of the os coxa on each side
coccyx tailbone
thoracic cage the bony cage that encircles the chest- composed of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, and thoracic vertebrae
sternum a narrow flat bone that is composed of three fused bones, the manubrium, the body of the sternum, and the xiphoid process
manubrium the superior portion of the sternum, has a concave superior surface called teh suprasternal notch or jugular notch
sternal angle between the body of the sternum and the manubrium, an important clinical landmark indicating attachment of the second rib
xiphoid process inferior portion of the sternum that is shaped like a small sword
ribs 12 pairs in both males and females- the first 7 are called true ribs because they have direct connection to costal cartilage, the last 5 rib pairs are called false ribs- ribs 11 and 12 are floaters
head of rib projects from the posterior part of the rib and articulates with demifacets on the bodies of thoracic vertebrae
neck of rib constricted part later to the head
tubercle of rib small, knob-like projection close to the neck that articulates with the facet of a transverse process
body of rib main part of rib
Created by: jwilcox2