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DevPsych Ch.5

Physical Development in Infancy

the cephalocaudal pattern the sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom; also occurs in head area.
the proximodistal pattern the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities
Shaken Baby Syndrome brain swelling, hemorrhaging; it affects hundred of babies in the U.S. each year.
forebrain portion furthest away from spinal cord
cerebral cortex covers forebrain; two halves
frontal lobes involved in involuntary movement, thinking, personality, memory, emotion, sustained attention, and intentionality/purpose
occipital lobes vision function
temporal lobes active role in hearing, language processing, and memory
parietal lobes important roles in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
lateralization specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other
neurons nerve cells that handle information processing; send electrical and chemical signals to communicate with each other
myelin sheath a layer of fat cells that encases many axons; insulates axons and helps electrical signals travel faster
synapses tiny gaps between neurons' fibers; chemical interactions within these gaps connect axons and dendrites
myelination the process of encasing axons with fat cells; starts in the prenatal term and continues through adolescence
prefrontal cortex the are of the brain where higher-level thinking and self-regulation occur
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) a condition that occurs when infants stop breathing, usually during the night, and die suddenly without an apparent cause; highest cause of infant death in U.S.
marasmus caused by a severe protein-calorie deficiency and results in a wasting away of body tissues in the infant's first year
kwashiorkor caused by severe protein deficiciency; appears between 1 and 3 years of age; appear well fed even though they are not because the child's abdomen and feet begin to swell with water; vital organs collect nutrients and hold them away from other body parts
maturation the unfolding of a genetic plan through which motor development comes about
dynamic systems theory infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting; infants must see/perceive something in the environment that motivates them to act
reflexes built-in reactions to stimuli; govern movements automatic and beyond control; genetically carried survival mechanisms
rooting reflex occurs when infant's cheeek is stroked or side of mouth is touched
sucking relfex occurs when a newborn automatically sucks an object placed in its mouth
Moro reflex
the Babinski reflex infants fan out their toes and twist their foot inward when the sole of their foot is stroked; disappears after 9 months - 1 year
the grasping reflex occurs when something touches the infant's palms
gross motor skills skills that involve large-muscle activities such as moving one's arms and walking
fine motor skills skils that involve finely tuned movements
the palmer grasp the initial instinct of an infant to grasp with whole hand
the pincer grip the forefinger-to-thumb method of grasping that evolves at the end of the first year
sensation occurs when information reacts with sensory receptors (eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin)
perception the interpretation of what is sensed
ecological view perception functions to bring organisms in contact with the environment and to increase adaptation
affordances opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our capabilities to perform activities
size constancy the recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes as you move toward/away from it
shape constancy the recognition that an object remains the same shape even though its orientation to us changes
intermodal perception integrating information from two or more sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing
Created by: lmr268
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