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nur 101 exam 03

activity and exercise

normal hgb males 14-16 females 12-14
cardiac output the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each contraction
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume average 5L/min range 4-8L/min
heart rate number of beats per minute
stroke volume amount of blood that enters the arteries with each contraction
apex bottom of heart
base top of heart
great vessels of the heart superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, aorta
Left lung two lobes
right lung three lobes
low pressure vessels veins
high pressure vessels arteries
The thickest cardiac muscle left ventricle
Conductive pathway "Plan A" SA Node (sino atrial) located in right atria. electrical impulses cause heart muscle to depolaraize (contract) in the SA Node. 60-100 times/min
the pacemaker of the heart SA Node
Conductive pathway "Plan B" AV Node (atrial ventricular) beats 40-60/min. may not be enough. may feel lightheaded, dizzy.
conductive pathway "Plan C" Bundle of His 20-40 beats/min. not enough. will need pacemaker, meds.
P Wave beginning of heart rate. right and left atrial contraction/depolarization starts here sending blood to ventricles.
PR interval allowing ventricles to fill
QRS ventricle depolarization. ventricles are contracting.
T wave ventricle repolarization/relaxing
no reflection atrial repolarization/relaxation
dialostic repolarization
systolic depolarization/contraction
first heart sound S1 systole. lubb sound
second heart sound S2 diastole. longer than systole.
third heart sound S3 heard in diastole in kids and young adults. use bell. called ventricular gallop
fourth heart sound S4 heard in late diastole/early systole. called atrial gallop
S&S of right side heart failure swelling, edema, distended veins, feet swelling during the day
S&S of left side heart failure SOB, increase resp rate
location of aortic valve right of sternum 2nd ics.
location of pulmonic valve left of sternum 2nd ics
location of tricuspid valve left of sternum 5th ics
location of bicuspid(mitral) valve left of sternum 5th ics, medial to midclavicular line. (apical pulse)
oxygenated blood is found here arteries. flow away from heart.
dexoygenated blood is found here veins. flow back to heart.
point of maximal impulse (PMI) apical pulse. in apex of heart.
grading pulses: 0, 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+ non palapable, weak, normal, full, bounding(may indicate heart condition)
pulse deficit diff between apical and radial pulse.
JVD Juglar Vein Distention on right side may indicate CHF. If bulging with head elevated a + finding.
vasoconstriction vessels getting smaller. b/p increases
vasodilation vessels getting bigger. b/p decreases
innervates heart through vagus nerve. supplies sa node, atrial muscle fibers, and av node. causes heart rate to slow down parasympathetic
fight or flight. supplies all areas of atria and ventricles. causes heart to speed up. sympathetic
located in walls of carotid sinus and aortic arch. detects b/p changes baroreceptors(pressorreceptors)
angina decreased o2 to heart
pericarditis heart sac inflamation
activity tolerance classification. class I, class II, class III, class IV
class I has heart disease. asymptomatic
class II slight limitations. no distress at rest.
class III significant limitation. no distress at rest but low intensity activity causes palpations,sob, etc.
class IV symptoms at rest. any activity aggravates symptoms.
pulmonic chest pain pleuritic pain. sharp knife-like. related to lungs.
claudication intermittent sharp cramping in legs after activity. ischemia, atherosclerosis
fatigue low energy levels
weakness decreased muscular strength
SOB shortness of breath. dyspnea. can be cardiac, psychogenic, respiratory
self care abilities 0, I, II, III, IV
self care 0 pt can do everything for self
self care I pt needs help with equipment ie walker, cane...
self care II pt needs help of one person
self care III pt needs help of one person and equipment.
self care IV totally dependent on others.
Created by: 526128021