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Exam 2 101 Sheri

Sheri 2013

QuestionAnswer
Acute Care a branch of secondary (or tertiary) health care where a patient receives active but short-term treatment usually more costly
Adult Day Care Centers provide a variety of health and social services to specific client populations who live alone or with family in the community
Assisted living an attractive long term care setting with a homier environment and greater resident autonomy
Capitation providers received a fixed amount per client or enrollee of a health care plan
Case management a case manager, coordinates the efforts of all disciplines to achieve the most efficient and appropriate plan of care for the client
Client-centered care Putting clients first is key to improving the quality of health and family planning services. Planners, managers, and providers can design and offer services that both meet medical standards and treat clients as they want to be treated.
Critical pathway a multidisciplinary treatment plan that outlines the treatments or interventions plan that outlines the treatments or interventions clients need to have while int eh hospital or a specific condition or procedure
Professional standards review organization review the quality, quantity, and cost of hospital care
Utilization review committees review the admissions, diagnostic testing, and treatments provided by physicians who cared for clients receiving Medicare
Prospective payment system eliminated cost-based reimbursement. Hospitals serving clients who received Medicare benefits were no longer able to charge whatever the client's care cost
resource utilization groups mutually exclusive categories that reflect levels of resource need in long-term care settings, primarily to facilitate Medicare and Medicaid payment
Managed care health care systems in which there is administrative control over primary health care services for a defined client population. The provider or health care system receives a predetermined capitated payment for each enrolled in the program
Intergrated deliery networks a set of providers and services organized to deliver continuum of care to a population of clients at a capitated cost in a particular setting.
Medicare Program designed to cover health care costs for senior citizens
Preferred provider Organization Limits an enrollee's choice to a list of "preferred" hospitals, physicians, and providers. An enrollee pays more out of pocket expenses for using a provider not on the list
Exclusive provider organization One that limits an enrollee's choice to providers belonging to one organization.
Medicaid Federally funded, state operated program that provides: (1) health insurance to low income families (2) health assistance to low-income people with long term care disabilities (3) supplemental coverage and LTC assistance to older adults and Medicare benef
Private insurance Traditional fee-for-service plan. Payment computed after client received services on basis of number of services used.
Long term care insurance supplemental insurance for coverage of long-term care services.
Disease prevention activities that protect people from becoming ill because of actual or potential health threats
Health promotion activities that develop human attitudes and behaviors to maintain or enhance well-being
Primary care provision of integrated, accessible health care services by health care professionals who address a majority of personal health care needs, develop partnerships with clients, and care for families and communities
Primary health care combination of primary and public health care that is accessible to individuals and families in a community provided at an affordable cost
Primary prevention health promoting behaviors or activities that reduce the occurrence of an illness
Public Health community and interdisciplinary care aimed at preventing disease and promoting health
secondary prevention early diagnosis and treatment of illness
tertiary prevention care that prevents further progression of disease
discharge planning begins at the moment a client is admitted to a health care facility. A process used to decide what a patient needs for a smooth move from one level of care to another
rehabilitation restores a person to the fullest physical, mental, social, vocational, and economic potential possible
Home care provision of medically related professional and paraprofessional services and equipment to clients and families in their homes for health maintenance, education, illness prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease
work redsign more services available on nursing units, thus minimizing the need to transfer and transport clients across multiple diagnostic and treatment areas
restorative care help individuals regain maximal functional status and to enhance quality of life through promotion of independence and self-care
extended care facilities provides intermediate medical, nursing, or custodial care for clients recovering from acute illness or clients with chronic illnesses or disabilities
Skilled nursing facility offers skilled care from a licensed nursing staff
minimum data set part of the U.S. federally mandated process for clinical assessment of all residents in Medicare or Medicaid certified nursing homes. This process provides a comprehensive assessment of each resident's functional capabilities and helps nursing home staff
Respite care a service that provides short-term relief or time off for a person providing home care to an ill, disabled, or frail older adult
Hospice system of family centered care that allows clients to live and remain at home with comfort
Nursing sensitive outcomes client outcomes that are directly related to nursing care.
Globalization Advances in communication, primarily through the internet, allow nurses, clients and other health care providers to talk to others worldwide about health care issues
Nursing informatics combines the best of computer science and information science with nursing science. It supports nursing practice and delivery of nursing care by providing nurses with a way to manage and process nursing data
Vulnerable population Children, women, and older adults that are most threatened by urbanization.
Confidentiality is how health care providers treat client private information once it has been disclosed to others
DPAHC (Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care) A legal document that designates a person or persons of one's choosing to make health care decisions when the client is no longer able to make decisions on his or her own behalf
Accreditation Accreditation agencies such as The Joint Commission (TJC) specify guidelines for documentation
Acuity records offer a way to determine the hours of care and staff required for a given group of clients
Case Management Model incorporates a multidisciplinary approach to documenting client care
Change-of-shift report participation between staff members from both shifts where a nurse gives orally in person, by audiotape recording, or during "walking-planning" to share and clarify information about patient
Charting by exception focuses on documenting deviations from the established norm or abnormal findings
Computerized Physician Order Entry one type of order entry system gaining popularity in the larger medical centers across the country
Consultations another form of discussion whereby one professional caregiver gives formal advice about the care of a client to another caregiver
Critical Pathways are multidisciplinary care plans that include client problems, key interventions and expected outcomes within an established time frame
DAR (Focus Charting) D- Data A- Action R- Response
Diagnosis-related Group is a series of decision trees designed to cluster groups of clients together by diagnosis, surgical procedures, complications, preexisting illness and age
Documentation any written or printed yo rely on as record or proof for authorized persons
Flow Sheets forms that allow nurses to quickly and easily enter assessment data about the client, including vital signs and routine repetitive care
Focus Charting Use of DAR, moves away from charting only problems and instead addresses a client concerns
sign symptom, a condition, a nursing diagnosis, a behavior, a significant event, or a change in a client's condition
Information Technology refers to the management and processing of info, generally with the assistance of computers
Kardex a portable "flip-over" file or notebook, is kept at the nurses station includes: basic demographic data, HIPAA code word, Physician's name, primary medical diagnosis, current treatment orders from health care providers to be carried out by the nurse, care
Menu lists related commands that the nurse selects from the computer screen to complete the client assessment
Nursing Informatics defined by the ANA (American Nurse Association) as a specialty that integrates nursing science, computer science, and information science to manage and communicate data, information, and knowledge in nursing practice
Password a collection of alphanumeric characters that a user types into the computer before accessing a program
PIE (Progress method) P- Problem I- Intervention E- Evaluation
Problem-Orientated Medical Record (POMR) a method of documentation that emphasizes the client's problem
Record aka chart is a confidential , permanent legal documentation or information relevant to a client's health care
Referrals an arrangement for services by another care provider
Reports oral, written, or audiotaped exchanges of information between caregivers
Residents name given to patients who require long-term health care and will live the rest of their life in a long-term care setting
SOAP (Progress method) S- Subjective O- Objective A- Assessment P- Plan
SOAPIE (Progressive method) S- Subjective O- Objective A- Assessment P- Plan I- Intervention E- Evaluation
Source Record The client's chart has a separate section for each discipline to record data allows caregivers to easily locate the proper section of the record to make entries in
Standardized Care Plans preprinted, established guidelines that are used to care for clients who have similar health problems
Transfer Reports Promotes continuity of care between one unit to another about a patients information
Variances Unexpected outcomes, unmet goals, and interventions not specified within the critical pathway time frame
Evidence based practice a problem solving approach to clinical practice that intergrates the conscience use of best evidence in combination with a clinicians expertise and client preferences and values in making decisions about client care
PICO question 4 focused questions, to search for evidence in scientific literature P- patient population of interest I- Intervention of interest C- comparisons of interest O- outcome
peer reviewed a panel of experts familiar with the articles topis or subject matter has reveiwed the article
clinical guidlines systematically developed statements about a plan of care for a specific set of clinical circumstances involving a specific client population
Bias controlled trials without randomized studies
hypotheses predictions made about the relationship or difference between study concepts
variables concepts, characteristics, or traits that vary within subjects
nursing research a way to identify new knowledge, improve professional education and practice, and use research effectively
scientific method the foundation of research and the most reliable and objective of all methods of gaining knowledge
empirical data evidence that is part of experience
quantitative nursing research a study of nursing phenomena the offeres precise measurment and qualification
experimental research conditions are tightly controlled to eliminate bias and to ensure that findings can be generalizable to similar groups of subjects
surveys obtain information from populations regarding the frequency, distribution, and interrelations of variables among subjects in the study
evaluation research a forms of quantitive research that involves finding out how well a program, practice, procedure, or policy is working
Qualitative nursing research the study of phenomena that are difficult to quantify or characterize
inductive reasoning develop generalizations or theories from specific observations or interviews
research process an orderly series of steps that allow a researcher to move from asking the research questions to finding the answer
Informed consent research subjects (1) are given full and complete information about the purpose of the study, procedures, data collections, potential harm and benefits, and alternative methods of treatment (2) are capale of fully understanding the research and the implic
anonymity occurs when even the researcher cannot link the subject to the data
confidentiality guarentees that any information that subject provides will not be reported in any manner that identifies the subject and will not be accessible to people outside the research team
performance improvement an organization analyzes and evaluates current performance to use results to develop focused improvement actions
quality improvement an approach to the continued study and improvement of the process providing health care services to meet the needs of clients and others
active listening being attentive to what the client is saying both verbally and nonverbally
assertiveness conveys a sense of self-assurance while also communicating respect for the other person
autonomy the ability to be self directed and independent in accomplishing goals and advocating for others
channels means of conveying and receiving messages through visual, auditory and tactile senses
communication a lifelong learning process for the nurse
empathy the ability to understand and accept another person's reality, to accurately perceive feelings, and to communicate this understanding to the other
environment the setting for sender-receiver interaction
feedback the message the receiver returns
interpersonal communication one-to-one interaction between the nurse and another person that often occurs face to face
interpersonal variables factors within both the sender and receiver that influence communication
intrapersonal communication a powerful form of communication that occurs within an individual - self-talk, self-verbalization, inner thought
message the content of communication
metacommunication broad term that refers to all factors that influence communication
nonverbal communication includes all five senses and everything that does not involve the spoken or written word
perceptions informaiton received through the five senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell
perceptual biases human tendencies that interfere with accurately perceiving and interpreting messages from others
public communication interaction with an audience
receiver the person who receives and decodes the message
referent motivates one person to communicate with another
sender person who encodes and delivers the message
small group communication interaction that occurs when a small number of persons meet together
symbolic communication the verbal and nonverbal symbolism used by others to convey meaning
sympathy concern, sorrow, or pity felt for the client generated by the nurse's personal identification with the client's needs
therapeutic communications techniques specific responses that encourage the expression of feelings and ideas and convey acceptance and respect
transpersonal communications interaction that occurs within a person's spiritual domain
verbal communications uses spoken or written words
affective learning expression of feelings and acceptance of attitudes, opinions, or values
analogies supplement verbal instructions with familiar images that make complex information more real and understandable
cognitive learning includes all intellectual behaviors and requires thinking
compliance a client's adherence to the prescribed cours of therapy
functional illiteracy the inability to read above a fifth grade level
learning the purposeful acquisition of new knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills
learning objective what the learner will be able to do after successful instruction
motivation a force that acts on or within a person
psychomotor learning aquiring skills that require the integration of mental and muscular activity, such as the ability to walk or to use an eating utensil
reinforcement requires using stimulus that increases the probability for a response
return demonstration learners first observe the teacher and then have the chance to practice the skill
self efficacy a person's perceived ability to successfully complete a task
teaching an interactive process that promotes learning
Anabolism the building of more complex biochemical substance by synthesis of nutrients
Anorexia loss of appetite
Anthropometry measurement system of the size and makeup of the body height and weight obtained
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) the energy needed to maintain life-sustaining activities (breathing, circulation, heart rate, and temperature)
Body Mass Index (BMI) measures weight corrected for height and serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships
Catabolism the breakdown of biochemical substance into simpler substances
Chyme acidic and liquefied mass that enters the duodenum
Daily Values nutrient standards that are printed on food labels. Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2,000-calorie diet, they allow consumers to compare the nutrient and energy contents of packaged foods.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) evidence-based criteria for an acceptable range of amounts of vitamins and nutrients to avoid deficiencies or toxicities for each gender and age-group
Dysphagia difficulty when swallowing
Enteral Nutrition (EN) nutrients given in the GI tract. EN receive formula via nasogastric, jejunal or gastric tubes
Hypervitaminosis of fat-soluble vitamins results from megadoses (intentional or unintentional) of supplemental vitamins, excessive amounts in fortified foods and large intake of fish oils
Ideal Body Weight (IBW) provides an estimate of what a person should weigh
Kilocalorie a unit of energy equal to 1000 calories
Malabsorption abnormal absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract i.e Celiac Disease
Malnutrition a state of poor nutrition
Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition it's necessary to assist the body's ability to metabolize certain nutrients, correct nutritional deficiencies related to the disease, and eliminate foods that may exacerbate d
Metabolism refers to all the biochemical reactions within the cells of the body
Nutrient Density the proportion of essential nutrients to the number of kilocalories
Nutritients elements necessary for body processes and function
Parenteral Nutrition a form of specialized nutrition support in which nutrients are provided intravenously
Peristalsis within the esophagus are wavelike muscular contractions that move food to the base of the esophagus above the cardiac sphincter
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) the amount of energy an individual needs to consume over a 24 hour period for the body to maintain all its internal working activities while at rest
Vegetarianism consumption of a diet consisting predominantly of plant foods
Water Soluble vitamins vitamin C and the B complex (eight vitamins) The body does not store these vitamins so they need to be provided in the daily food intake
Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamins A,D,E and K are stored in the fatty compartments of the body, all taken in through dietary intake except for D which is taken in by sun exposure
Anorexia Nervosa a disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming obese results in severe weight loss from self-imposed starvation
Created by: appleblossoms