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Micro and Immunology

Pharmacology: Microbiology & Immunology

QuestionAnswer
What is β-lactamase? a bacterial enzyme that degrades the β-lactam ring of antibiotics
1. Which antibiotics are antagonistic to each other? 2. Which antibiotics are synergistic? 1. protein synthesis inhibitors and β-lactams 2. aminoglycosides and β-lactams
Mechanism of resistance of drugs against penicillins 1. penicillinases 2. change in structure of PBPs 3. change in porin structure
1. What are the antipseudomonal penicillins 2. Which penicillins work best against methicillin sensitive S. aureus? 1. TCP (takes care of pseudomonas): Ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin 2. Nafcillin, oxacillin
Which organisms are the following drugs effective against? 1. 1st gen. cephalosporins 2. 2nd gen cephalosporins 1. gram positives + PEcK (proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella) 2. Gram pos + PEcK + HEN (haemophilus, Enterobacter Neisseria)
What generation are cephalosporins with a "ph" in their name? first generation
Mechanism of action 1. Amantadine 2. oseltamivir 3. Ribavirin 1. blocks viral uncoating (M2 protein 2. (Tamiflu) inhibits neuraminidase 3. inhibits RNA polymerase
Which drugs are used against: 1. hepatitis C virus 2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus 1. alpha-interferon, Ribavarin 2. Ribavirin
Renal toxicity, fever and chills "shake and bake" Amphotericin B side effects?
1. Mechanism of action of Azole family of antifungals 2. Mechanism of action of Griseofulvin. 3. What organisms is Griseofulvin effective against 1. inhibit fungal p450 enzyme involved in ergosterol synthesis 2. deposited into newly formed keratin & disrupts microtubule synthesis 3. dermatophytes
Rifampin 4 R's 1. RNA polymerase inhibitor 2. Revs up cytochrome P450 3. Red/orange body fluids 4. Rapid resistance if used alone
Metronidazole 1. Mechanism of action 2. Use 1. forms free radical toxic metabolites in bacterial cell that damage DNA 2. anaerobic bacteria (clostridium difficile)
Mechanism of action: 1. Daptomycin 2. Chloramphenicol 3. Ciprofloxacin 1. cyclic lipopeptide; acts on cell membrane 2. 50s ribosome inhibitor 3. DNA gyrase inhibitor
1. Vancomycin inhibits which amino acids in the formation of the cell wall. 2. Why are aminoglycosides not effective against bacteriodes or clostridium? 1. D-ala D-ala 2. aminoglycosides require O2 for uptake and are not effective against anaerobes
1. Which antibiotic causes a prolonged QT interval 2. Is the combination of penicillin + beta-lactamase inhibitors effective against MRSA? 1. Macrolides like Erythromycin, azithromycin 2. no. MRSA has an impaired B-lactam binding site; beta-lactamase are only effective against beta-lactamase enzymes
Isoniazide: 1. Mechanism 2. Toxicity. (How to prevent toxicity) 1. ↓ synthesis of mycolic acid 2. hepatitis, peripheral neuritis (B6), sideroblastic anemia (B6), SLE in slow acetylators
1. Drug of choice for malaria 2. Treatment when resistant to DOC 3. Used to eradicate liver stages of Plasmodium species 1. Chloroquine 2. Quinine 3. Primaquine
Mechanism of action 1. Pyrazinamide 2. Ethambutol 1. inhibits fatty acid synthase I gene involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis 2. inhibits mycobacterial arabinosyl transferases, involved in cell wall synthesis
Mechanism of action of: 1. Nystatin 2. Echinocardins 3. Caspofungin 1. binds ergosterol and forms membrane pores 2. blocks formation of chitin layer 3. inhibits fungal wall component D-glucan
1. Aminoglycoside side effects 2. Clinical use of streptomycin 1. ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity (ATN), teratogen 2. second line tuberculosis
1. Tenofovir mechanism 2. clinical use 1. nucleotide analog of adenosine; inhibits reverse transcriptase 2. HBV and HIV-1
1. What drug is given in addition to imipenen? 2. Why 1. Cilastatin 2. so imipenem is not metabolized to a nephrotoxic metabolite
Organisms not covered by cephalosporins: LAME: 1. Listeria 2. Atypicals: chlamydia, mycoplasma 3. MRSA 4. Enterococci
1. Which cephalosporins are eliminated in the bile? 2. Cephalosporins with a disulfuram-like reaction 1. ceftriaxone and cefoperazone 2. cefoperazone and cefotetan
1. Antibiotic that causes "red man syndrome" 2. Synergistic effects of aminoglycosides and penicillins are used against which two classes of bacteria? 1. vancomycin 2. enterococci and pseudomonas
1. Tetracyclin side effects. 2. What are these side effects due to? 1. teeth discoloration, growth impairement in children 2. tetracyclin is a chelator of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) which ↓ absorption
1. How is chloramphenicol metabolized? 2. Chloramphenicol toxicity in neonates 1. hepatic glucuronidation 2. grey baby syndrome (not enough UDP-glucuronyl transferase)
1. Drug class of choice for atypical organisms 2. Which organisms does this include? 1. macrolides (arythromycin, azithromycin) 2. chlamydia, mycoplasma, legionella
Mechanism of action of famciclovir and valacyclovir. same as acyclovir (TK phosphorylated and inhibit DNA polymerase)
Acyclovir 1. Mechanism of action 2. Clinical use: 1. phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase and inhibits DNA polymerase; also incorporated into DNA and acts as a chain terminator 2. HSV, VZV, EBV
Foscarnet 1. Mechanism of action 2. Clinical use 1. inhibit viral specific DNA polymerases 2. CMV when ganciclovir fails, acyclovir resistant HSV
Mechanism of action 1. Sulfonamides 2. Trimethoprim 1. dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor 2. dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor
Primary drugs of tuberculosis RIPE 1. Rifampin 2. Isoniazide 3. Pyrazinamide 4. Ethambutol
HIV integrase inhibitor Raltegravir
1. Drug of choice for giardiasis 2. Antimicrobials that cause hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficiency 1. metronidazole 2. quinine, isoniazide, sulfonamides
1. How are β-lactams eliminated from the body? 2. What drug-drug interaction is seen in elimination? 1. β-lactams eliminated by renal tubular secretion in proximal convoluted tubule 2. probenicid
Mechanism of action of of cyclosporin and tacrolimus inhibits calcineurin, preventing the production of IL-2 and its receptor in T cells
1. Which antibiotics inhibit the 30S microbial subunit? 2. 50S buy AT 30, CELL at 50 30S 1. Aminoglycoside 2. Tetracyclin 50S 1. Chloramphenicol 2. Erythromycin (macrolide) 3. Linezolid 3. cLindamycin
1. Antimicrobial used for chloroquine resistant forms of plasmodium 2. Antimicrobial added to chloroquine to kill dormant liver forms of protozoan 1. Mefloquine 2. Primaquine
Bacteriostatic antibiotics ECSTaTIC about bacteriostatics 1. Erythromycin 2. Clindamycin 3. Sulfamethoxazole 4. Trimethoprim 5. Tetracyclines 6. Chloramphenicol
Bactericidal antibiotics Very Finely Proficient At Cell Murder 1. Vancomycin 2. Fluoroquinolones 3. Penicillin 4. Aminoglycosides 5. Cephalosporins 6. Metronidazole
1. Drug of choice for S. aureus (not MRSA) 2. Tetracycline mechanism of action 1. nafcillin (has bulkier R group so is penicillinase resistant) 2. binds 30S and prevent attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA (Tetra block the T)
Aminopenicillins are clinically used against: HELPS kill enterococci certain gram-positives + gram-negative rods 1. H. influenza 2. E. coli 3. Listeria 4. Proteus 5. Salmonella 6. enterococci
1. Used to treat anaerobes above the diaphragm 2. Used to treat anaerobes below the diaphragm 1. Clindamycin 2. Metronidazole
Side effect: 1. tendon rupture 2. disulfiram-like reaction 3. pseudomembraneous colitis 4. nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity 5. SLE-like syndrome 1. fluoroquinolones 2. ketoconazole, griseofulvin, metronidazole, cefoperazone 3. clindamycin, ampicillin 4. aminoglycoside 5. isoniazide
Treatment of: 1. M. avium intracellulare 2. M. leprae 1. Azithromycin 2. Dapsone
Mechanism of action: 1. Terbinafine 2. Flucytosine 1. inhibits squalene epoxidase 2. antimetabolite to DNA synthesis
Mechanism of action of Nystatin inhibits ergosterole synthesis, by inhibiting the P-450 enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol only used topically
1. Oral prodrug of acyclovir 2. HIV drug ends in 'navir' 3. HIV drug used for general prophylaxis during pregnancy to reduce fetal transmission 1. Valcyclovir 2. Protease inhibitor 3. Zidovudine
HAART for HIV consists of: 1. 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) + 1 protease inhibitor 2. 2 NRTIs + 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
HIV drug causing hyperglycemia Protease inhibitor ('navir')
binds mTOR, inhibits T-cell proliferation in reponse to IL-2 Mechanism of action of sirolimus (rapamycin)
Target of the following antibodies 1. Daclizumab 2. Infliximab 3. Adalimumab 4. Abciximab 5. Rituximab 6. Trastuzumab 7. Muromonab 1. IL-2 receptor 2. TNF-α 3. TNF-α 4. glycoprotein IIb/IIIa 5. CD20 6. erb-B2 7. CD3
1. What is vancomycin used for? 2. What are side effects of vancomycin? 1. multi-drug resistant organisms such as MRSA, enterococci and Clostridium 2. nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombophlebitis, diffuse flushing (red man syndrome)
1. Drug of choice of Treponema pallidum 2. Treatment for H. pylori 1. Penicillin G 2. triple therapy of metronidazole, bismuth and either tetracycline or amoxicillin
1. These drugs cause gynecomastia by inhibiting hormone synthesis 2. antiviral drug with side effects of ataxia, dizziness and slurred speach. 1. Azoles 2. Amantadine
Treatment for: 1. Schistosomas 2. pneumocystic carinii 3. Chaga's disease 4. Pseudomembraneous colitis 1. Praziquantel 2. TMP-SMX 3. Nifurtimox 4. Metronidazole or oral vancomycin
Treatment for the following UTIs: 1. E. coli 2. Chlamydia 3. Neisseri gonorrhoeae 4. Vaginal candidiasis 1. Ampicillin 2. Macrolides or Tetracycline 3. 3rd generation cephalosporin (e.g. ceftriaxone) 4. Fluconazole
1. inhibits peptidyl transferase by binding to the 50s ribosomal subunit 2. inhibits translocation of peptidyl-tRNA 3. blocks attachment of aminoacyl tRNA to acceptor site 4. interfer with initiation codon function 1. chloramphenicol 2. macrolides 3. tetracycline 4. aminoglycoside
1. Tetracycline that can be used to treat syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion 2. Treatment of VRE, VRSA 1. Demeclocycline 2. Linezolid
HIV fusion inhibitor that binds: 1. gp41 2. CCR5 1. enfuvirtide 2. maraviroc
Treatment of: 1. lyme disease 2. S. pneumoniae 3. S. pyogenes 1. doxycycline or ceftriaxone 2. penicillin 3. penicillin 4. tetracycline
1. Treatment for rickettsia, mycoplasma and Chlamydia? 2. Treatment for Legionairre's 3. Treatment for oral candidiasis (Thrush) 1. Tetracycline (good for intracellular organism) 2. Erythromycin 3. Nystatin
Used for acyclovir resistant strands of cytomegalovirus Foscarnet, Cidofovir
Immunoglobin administered to prevent hemolytic disease of newborn in subsequent pregnancies. Anti-D immunoglobin
What are the clinical uses of: 1. interferon-α 2. interferon-β 3. interferon-γ 1. hepatitis B and C 2. multiple sclerosis 3. chronic granulomatous disease
Created by: amichael87