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Stack #70425

Chapter 25 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance, Dewit 2nd edition Part 1

Diffusion No energy is needed. Subtances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis No energy is needed. Water molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Filtration Movement of water and suspended substances outward through a semipermable membrane.
Active Transport Requires energy. Move molecules and ions against a concentration gradient, from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration.
Isotonic When living cells are surrounded by a solution that has the same concentration of particles, the water concentration of the intracellular and extracelluar fluids will be equal. No net fluid shifts occur.
hypertonic When living cells are surrounded by a solution that has greater concentration of solute than the cells, the water in the cells will move to the more concentrated solution and the cells will dehydrate and shrink.
Hypotonic When living cells are surrounded by a solution that has less solute than the cells swell from the extra fluid (overhydrate).
What organ regulates fluid and electrolyte balance by regulating the volume and composition of extracellular fluid? Kidneys
Who is at risk for deficient fluid volume? People who have impaired swallowing, extreme weakness, disorientation or coma, or the unavailability of water; patients who lose excessive amounts of fluid throught prolonged vomting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, diaphoresis or excessive wound drainage.
What treatments can cause a fluid deficit? Diuretic therapy and gastrointestinal suction w/o fluid replacement.
A deficit of sodium in the blood is called? Hyponatremia
When the serum sodium concentration rises above 145 mEq/L a state of what exists? Hypernatremia
When the potassium falls below 3.5 mEq/L, what exists? Hypokalema
When serum potassium level rises above 5.0 mEq/L a state of what exists? Hyperkalemia
Hyperkalemia can cause life-threatening? Cardiac Arrhythmia
When the calcium level drops below 8.4 mg/dL it's called? Hypocalcemia
When the serum calcium level rises above 10.6 mg/dL it's called? Hypercalcemia
When serum levels of magnesemia drop below 1.3 mEq/L it's called? Hypomagnesemia
When serum level of magnesemia rises above 2.1 mEq/L it's called? Hypermagnesemia
Hypermagnesemia is only in the presence of what condition? Renal Failure
Name some causes of Respiratory Acidosis Slow, shallow respirations, respiratory congestion/obstruction.
Name some causes of Metabolic Acidosis Shock (poor circulation), periods of heavy exercise, Diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, and diarrhea
Name some causes of Respiratory Alkalosis Hyperventilation
Name some causes of Metabolic Alkalosis Vomiting, Excessive actacid intake and Hypokalemia
What are the major effects of acidosis on the body? The major effects is depression of the central nervous system, as evidenced by headaches, lethargy, weakness, and confusion.
What leads to Metabolic Acidosis? excessive loss or bicarbonate ions or an increased production or retention of hydrogen ions.
What is the major cause of Metabolic Acidosis? Kidney disease, in which there is decreased excretion of acids and decreased production of bicarbonate.
What does hyperventilation results in? Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation is usually caused by: Anxiety, high fever, or an overdose of aspirin.
What is the treatment for hyperventilation? Treatment is treating the underlying disorder.
Name some signs and symptoms fo Metabolic acidosis Headache, lethargy, confusion, weakness, Kussmaul respirations.
What is the evidence that the compensatory mechanisms are working in Metabolic Acidosis? Deep rapid breathing (Kussmaul's respirations) and secretion of urine with a low pH.
What are effects of Alkalosis on the body? Overexcitement of the nervous system. The patient may display restlessness, muscle twitching, and tingling and numbness of the fingers and toes.
What happens if Alkalosis progresses? Tetany(severe muscle cramps, carpal-pedal spasms, laryngeal spasms, and stridor (shrill harsh sound upon inspiration)) will occur and seizures and coma result.
What is the most common electrolyte imbalance people experience? Hyponatremia
What are some causes of Hyponatremia? Vomiting or diarrhea, decreased secretion of aldosterone, CHF, loss of bile as a result of fistulas, drainage, gastrointestinal surgery, and suction. Loss of sodium through burn wounds, adminstration of IV fluids and liver disease with ascites.
What is the average intake of sodium? 6 to 12 g/day
Name some nursing interventions for hyponatremia Replace of water loss with fluids containing sodium, closely monitor patient receiving intravenous solutions to correct hyponatremia.
What are the signs and symptoms for Hypernatremia? High levels of sodium. 1) Dry mucous membranes 2) Loss of skin turgor 3) Intense thrist 4) Flushed skin 5) Oliguria 6)Possible elevated temp 7) Weakness 8) Lethargy
What are the signs and symptoms for Hyponatremia? Low levels of sodium. 1)CNS changes from failure of swollen cells to transmit electrical pulses 2) Confusion 3)Anxiety 4) Anorexia 5) Nausea 6) Vomiting
What are the nursing interventions for Hypernatremia? High levels of soduim. 1) Encourage increase fluid intake 2) Measure I&O 3)Give water between tube feedings 4) Restrict sodium intake 5)Monitor temperature.
Created by: Shaddinger