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Chapter2 study guide

MICK-Living Things and The Necessities of Life

What is a cell? the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm.
What is a stimulus? anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism.
What is homeostasis? the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment.
What is sexual reproduction? reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offspring that share traits from both parents.
What is asexual reproduction? reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring identical to itself .
What is heredity? the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring.
What is metabolism? the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism.
What is a producer? an organism that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings.
What is a consumer? an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter.
What is a decomposer? an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients.
What is a protein? a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body.
What is a carbohydrate? a class of energy-giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
What is a lipid? a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water and that stores energy; some even form the membranes of cells.1
What is a phospholipid? a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes.
What is adenosine triphosphate(ATP)? a molecule that acts as the main evergy source for cell processes; it is the major energy-carrying molecule in the cell.
What is a nucleic acid? a molecule made up of subunits called nucleotides
What is the smallest unit of life? a cell
What percentage of your body is water? 70%
Most chemical reactions involved in metabolism require__________. water
What is a chemical process in which most living things use oxygen/ releasing energy from food
What are two things food gives organisms? energy and raw materials needed to carry on life processes
Nutrients are made up of_____, a substance created when two or more atoms combine. molecules
Molecules made of different kinds of atoms are called____. compounds
Name the five building blocks of cells. proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, ATP, and nucleic acids
What are some examples of stimuli? chemicals, gravity, light, sounds, and hunger
How do some animals control their body temperatures? they control their temperatures by moving from one environment to another
What does DNA do? it controls the structure and function of cells
What do organisms pass on to their offspring? copies of their DNA
What are some examples of activities of life carried out by all organisms? breaking down food, building cells, and making food
How does a single-celled organism grow? the cell gets larger and divides, making other organisms.
Created by: hmick