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CHCS 8th CH3

CHCS Earth Science Chapter 3

gnomon an instrument used to cast shadows in sunlight
quadrant an instrument used to measure a star's position, esp for navigation
sundial a gnomon with a numbered dial used to tell time
refract to bend or break
refracting telescopes uses only lenses to gather light and magnify an image
Roger Bacon 1st to use telescopes for navigation and war
Galileo 1st to use telescopes for viewing the heavens; used a refracting telescope
ocular lens AKA eyepiece lens
objective lens the lens that is pointed toward the object being viewed; the diameter of this lens indicates the size of the refracting telescope
the 3 functions of a telescope 1) gather light 2) magnify the image 3) bring out the details of the image (resolution)
resolution the ability of telescope to bring out the details of an image
chromatic aberration color distortion caused by refracting telescopes; makes 'ghosts' around image -- makes image fuzzy; tried to reduce this by making the telescope very long
reflecting telescopes invented by Sir Issac Newton; uses a mirror to gather light; eliminates chromatic aberration
Newtonian Reflector the image is viewed through the side of the tube
Cassegrainian Reflector more compact and easier to use than a Newtonian reflector; the image is viewed through the end like a refracting telescope
honeycomb mirror advancement in mirror construction where the mirror is spin cast over a honeycomb shaped base
segmented mirror hexagonal (6 sided) mirrors that fit together to make one large mirror
meniscus mirror a single piece of glass that is so thin, it requires computer actuators to keep the mirror in the proper shape
composite telescope a modern telescope that uses both lenses and a mirror to gather light
radio telescope a large "satellite dish" used to collect rays and waves other than visible light; also used as radar to investigate nearby space objects like planets
2 types of telescope mounts equatorial and altazimuth
2 ways to locate stars constellations or coordinates
Bayer assigned Greek letters to the most prominent stars; usually alpha for the brightest, beta for the 2nd brightest, etc...
celestial equator the plane of the earth's equator projected into the sky, dividing the heavens into northern and southern halves
declination (DEC) a star's angular distance north or south of the celestial equator; + indicates north, - indicates south
right ascension (RA) given in hours; gives a stars longitudinal distance east of the Prime Hour Circle
Prime Hour Circle the starting line for right ascension
magnitude a measure of a star's brightness
two things that affect a star's brightness 1) distance from earth 2) absolute magnitude (how much light it is actually giving off)
the earth's nearest star neighbor Proxima Centauri; 4.22 light years away from earth
light year the distance light travels in a year; 186,000 miles per second; 5.9 trillion miles
proper motion a star's motion across the sky as we see it
radial motion a star's movement toward or away from earth; + for moving toward us, - for moving away from us
supergiant the largest and brightest stars
white dwarfs very hot, blue-white stars; extremely dense; near the size of the earth
eclipsing binaries two stars that revolve around each other, one dim and one bright, appearing as one star that varies in brightness from night to night; example -- Algol...'the eye of the demon' in the constellation Perseus
Cepheid variables a type of star that changes in brightness because it expands and contracts regularly
nova "new star"; a star that no one has recorded before, that is visible for a time, and then fades...caused by the star exploding, but the star is not destroyed and may explode again
supernova a star that increases in brightness by 20 or more magnitudes, in an explosion that nearly destroys the star
neutron star an extremely dense, small, dark star that remains after a supernova explosion
pulsar a neutron star that appears to be spinning rapidly and emitting radio waves at regular intervals
magnetars neutron stars that have extremely strong rotation magnetic fields
star cluster several stars that have the same motions
open cluster several stars with the same motions that are relatively far apart
globular clusters several stars with the same motions that appear to be a single star; a spherical region of space filled with thousands of closely spaced stars
galaxy consists of millions of stars; may be spiral, elliptical, barred spiral, or irregular
nebula clouds of gas and dust
bright nebula clouds of mostly dust particles that are visible because they reflect light from nearby stars
planetary nebula ring shaped nebula
dark nebula clouds of gas and dust that do not have nearby source of light; they can be seen because they block light from objects that are behind them
quasars areas of space with no nearby objects that emit radio waves; QSO; quasi-stellar objects
black holes thought to be unimaginably dense objects with crushing gravity that is so great, not even light can escape; first mentioned by Einstein
Created by: mrslisawatson